Crypto Glossary

8V Exchange crypto glossary: Handy guide to crypto terminology to help you navigate the exciting world of cryptocurrency.



























0x Protocol

The 0x Protocol acts as a foundational layer on the Ethereum blockchain for the facilitation of cryptocurrency trading. It enables developers to build decentralized applications (dApps) like DEXs, wallets, and marketplaces with a seamless, built-in exchange functionality. Given its open-source nature, it fosters a community-driven approach to financial exchange systems, effectively bypassing the need for traditional centralized counterparts.


The term “1hr” designates a snapshot or aggregate of data spanning the most recent 60-minute interval. In trading, it’s often used for short-term analysis, and in big data, it might be used to observe transient patterns.


The abbreviation “24hr” refers to a comprehensive, day-long summary or collection of data points. This often covers market activities or statistical metrics in a 24-hour cycle and is especially useful for gauging daily volatility or performance.


“30d” specifies a month-long period, offering a longer-term viewpoint. In trading, this can help to observe trends and averages, while in other contexts like social media analytics, it’s useful for monthly performance reviews.

401(k) Plan

A 401(k) Plan is a retirement investment vehicle predominantly used in the United States. The program allows employees to allocate a portion of their pre-tax salary into a fund. Employers frequently match a part or all of the contributions, effectively offering a monetary incentive to save for retirement. In the modern investment landscape, many 401(k) plans also offer a variety of investment options, including mutual funds, ETFs, and sometimes even cryptocurrencies.

51% Attack

A 51% Attack occurs when a single entity or colluding group gains control of more than half of a blockchain network’s computational power. This dominant position jeopardizes the network’s integrity, as it allows the attacker to manipulate transactions and even double-spend tokens, undermining the fundamental premise of decentralization.

52-Week High/Low

The 52-Week High/Low is a trading metric indicating the highest and lowest price levels an asset has reached within the last year. It serves as a barometer for gauging the asset’s volatility and is frequently used as a reference point for setting trading strategies.

52-Week Range

The 52-week range captures the price oscillation of an asset over a one-year period by showing the difference between its highest and lowest valuations. This range serves as a historical volatility indicator and can be useful for traders employing strategies like mean-reversion.


“7d” is shorthand for a seven-day time span, often used for medium-term data analysis. Whether used in financial market summaries or health metrics, it provides a balanced perspective that is longer than daily observations but shorter than monthly or yearly data points.

80/20 Rule (Pareto Principle)

Named after Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto, the 80/20 Rule postulates that in many cases, a small number of causes (approximately 20%) lead to a large portion (approximately 80%) of the effects. It has wide-ranging applications from productivity management to portfolio optimization, and even in machine learning for feature selection.



Abenomics refers to the tripartite economic policy framework initiated by Japan’s former Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. The three “arrows” in this strategy include aggressive monetary easing, fiscal stimulus, and structural reforms aimed at revitalizing Japan’s stagnant economy. This strategy has been both praised and criticized for its effectiveness and side effects, including inflation and public debt.

Abnormal Return

Abnormal Return is the excess or deficit return generated by an asset or portfolio over a specified time frame, beyond what is predicted by its beta or expected market return. It serves as a measure to gauge the performance of a particular investment relative to the broader market or a benchmark.

Absolute Advantage

Absolute Advantage is the ability of an entity to produce a good or service more efficiently than another, using fewer resources. This contrasts with comparative advantage, where an entity may not have an absolute advantage in any good but specializes in producing goods where it has the least opportunity cost.

Absolute Return

Absolute Return is a metric that expresses the total return on an investment over a set period, irrespective of market conditions. Unlike relative returns, which compare performance to a benchmark, absolute returns aim for positive returns regardless of market dynamics.


An abstract is a conceptual, non-material idea or representation of something. In computer science, abstraction is a fundamental principle that allows programmers to hide the complex reality while exposing only the essential features of an object or process.

Abstraction Scalability

Abstraction Scalability refers to the architecture’s ability to scale by adding new, modular components with ease. In a programming context, it means the framework allows for the incorporation of new features or functionalities without disrupting existing systems.

Accepting Risk (Acceptance)

Accepting Risk or Risk Acceptance is the conscious decision to take on certain risks without mitigating them. This is typically done when the cost of mitigating the risk exceeds the benefit gained from doing so, or when the risk is deemed to be acceptable within certain tolerance levels.


An account is a record-keeping entity designed to track financial transactions associated with a specific asset, liability, or equity item. In a broader sense, accounts also pertain to user profiles in various systems, such as email or social media.

Account Abstraction

Account Abstraction is an approach in blockchain technology to simplify user interactions with smart contracts. It allows developers to customize how transactions are processed, thereby improving user experience and reducing entry barriers.

Account Balance

Account Balance is the net amount currently held in any account, whether it’s a bank, trading, or cryptocurrency account. In an accounting context, it refers to the net value derived from the tally of all credits and debits in a particular account.

Account Number

An Account Number is a unique identifier, usually a string of numbers and possibly letters, allocated to each account for the purposes of identification and management.


Accountability refers to the obligation or willingness to accept responsibility for one’s actions, often within the context of a hierarchical or team structure.

Accounting Conservatism

Accounting Conservatism is a financial reporting principle that emphasizes caution in recognizing income and assets, especially in situations of uncertainty. It prioritizes the immediate acknowledgment of liabilities and expenses to safeguard stakeholder interests.

Accounting Method

An Accounting Method is a set of rules and procedures employed for systematically recording, categorizing, and reporting financial transactions within an organization. Examples include cash accounting and accrual accounting.

Accounting Token

Accounting Tokens serve as digital representations of debit or credit entries in a blockchain-based accounting system. They function similarly to traditional accounting units but are enhanced with the properties of blockchain, like transparency and immutability.

Accredited Investors

Accredited Investors are individuals or entities who meet specific financial criteria, which allows them to invest in securities not registered with financial authorities. They are assumed to be financially savvy and therefore less in need of regulatory protection.

Accretion (of a Discount)

Accretion of a discount is the gradual increase in the value of a discounted bond as it approaches its maturity date or face value. The accreted amount is usually reported as interest income by the bondholder.

Accrual Accounting

Accrual Accounting is a method of accounting where revenues and expenses are recorded when they are earned or incurred, rather than when payment is received or made. This method provides a more accurate picture of a company’s financial health.


To accrue means to accumulate over time, and is commonly used in finance to describe the buildup of interest, income, or expenses within a given period, in accordance with the principles of accrual accounting.

Accrued Income

Accrued Income is income that has been earned but not yet received. Under the accrual method of accounting, such income is recognized in financial statements before cash is received.

Accrued Interest

Accrued Interest refers to the interest amount that has accumulated on a financial instrument like a bond or loan but has not yet been paid or received as of a specific date.

Accrued Liabilities

Accrued Liabilities are obligations that a company has incurred but has not yet settled by payment. They are recorded in the financial statements before the invoices are received.

Accrued Revenue

Accrued Revenue is revenue that has been recognized through the delivery of goods or services but has not yet been billed to the customer. It is recorded as an asset on the balance sheet until invoiced or payment is received.

Accumulation Phase

The Accumulation Phase is a period following a market downtrend during which savvy investors begin acquiring assets in anticipation of a future uptrend. The term is often used in the context of both stock markets and cryptocurrency markets.

Accumulation/Distribution Indicator

The Accumulation/Distribution Indicator is a technical analysis tool that multiplies the asset’s closing price and trading volume to determine its accumulation (buying pressure) or distribution (selling pressure).

Acid Test Ratio

Also known as the quick ratio, the Acid Test Ratio measures a company’s liquidity by comparing its most liquid assets to its current liabilities. It’s a stricter version of the current ratio and excludes inventory from assets.


An Acquisition is the purchase of one company by another. It usually involves buying a majority share of the target company’s stock, and it can be friendly or hostile.

Acquisition Cost

Acquisition Cost is the total expense incurred to acquire an asset, company, or customer. This includes the purchase price, transaction fees, and any other related costs.

Acquisition Premium

The Acquisition Premium is the extra amount paid over the market value of a company during an acquisition. This premium compensates for the control, synergy, or other strategic advantages expected from the acquisition.

Active Management

Active Management involves a portfolio manager or a team making investment decisions based on research, analysis, and their judgments, as opposed to following a market index.

Activist Investor

An Activist Investor is someone who acquires a significant stake in a company with the intention of influencing its operations, usually by advocating for changes in management or strategy.

Adam Back

Adam Back is a British cryptographer known for his contributions to the fields of cryptography and digital currencies. He is notable for the invention of Hashcash, an anti-spam mechanism, and for his involvement in the development of Bitcoin.

Adaptive State Sharding

A term associated with the Elrond blockchain, Adaptive State Sharding is a technique that combines network, transaction, and state sharding to improve throughput and scalability.


In the context of blockchain and cryptocurrencies, an address is a unique string of characters that represents the destination for a particular transaction. Addresses are generated algorithmically and are specific to each blockchain.

Administrative Expenses

Administrative Expenses are the costs related to the general operation of a business, such as salaries of non-manufacturing staff, rent, and office supplies. These costs are considered overhead and are deducted from a company’s income to arrive at its net profit.

Adoption Curve

The Adoption Curve is a graphical representation of the rate at which a new technology or innovation is adopted by users or customers. It’s often broken down into segments like innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards.

Advance/Decline Line (A/D Line)

The Advance/Decline Line is a technical indicator used in market analysis to provide insights into market breadth. It is calculated by taking the difference between the number of advancing stocks and the number of declining stocks.

Aeternity Blockchain

Aeternity is a blockchain platform that uses a hybrid consensus mechanism combining Proof-of-Work for crypto mining and Byzantine Fault Tolerance for consensus. Aeternity is known for its focus on scalability, privacy, and instant transactions.


In a business context, an Affiliate is a company that is related to another company, usually by being in the position of a member or a subordinate role. It can also refer to affiliate marketing partnerships.

Affiliate Marketing

Affiliate Marketing is a performance-based marketing strategy where a business rewards one or more affiliates for each customer or visitor brought by the affiliate’s own marketing efforts.

Agency Problem

The agency problem refers to the conflict of interest that arises when an agent is tasked with acting in the best interests of a principal but may have incentives to act in their own interests instead. This dilemma is often mitigated through contracts, incentive structures, and monitoring.

Agency Theory

Agency Theory is a framework used to understand, analyze, and solve agency problems. It offers insights into the design of contracts, governance mechanisms, and incentive systems to align the interests of agents and principals.


An agent is an individual or entity authorized to act on behalf of another, known as the principal. In a business setting, agents can negotiate and enter into contracts, manage tasks, or make decisions for the principal.

Aggregate Demand

Aggregate Demand is the total quantity of goods and services demanded in an economy at a specific price level and in a given period. It’s used to measure the overall economic activity and typically increases with the level of consumer and business confidence.

Aggressive Investment Strategy

An aggressive investment strategy aims to maximize returns by taking on a higher level of risk. Such strategies often involve investing in growth stocks, high-yield bonds, or derivatives.

Air Gap

An air gap is a security measure involving physical isolation of a computer or network, making it inaccessible from the internet or other unsecured networks. This strategy is employed to prevent unauthorized data access and cyber-attacks.


In the blockchain world, an airdrop involves distributing tokens — usually in order to engage potential users in a new project. These tokens are typically distributed to holders of a pre-existing cryptocurrency.


Airnode is a blockchain oracle designed for API providers to offer their data and services on the blockchain. It is a part of the API3 ecosystem and aims to offer a more secure and simplified way for data providers to connect to decentralized applications.

Alan Greenspan

Alan Greenspan was the Chairman of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006. He is known for his role in monetary policy during periods of both economic growth and downturns.

Algo-Trading (Algorithmic Trading)

Algorithmic trading involves the use of algorithms to automate trading decisions. These algorithms are based on a predetermined set of rules aiming to execute orders at the optimal price, minimize slippage and transaction costs, and other objectives.


An algorithm is a step-by-step procedure for calculations and problem-solving. In computer science, algorithms serve as the basis for all kinds of data manipulation and decision-making processes.

Algorithmic Market Operations (AMOs)

AMOs refer to automated protocols that manage the supply of algorithmic stablecoins. These operations help maintain the stablecoin’s value by dynamically issuing or buying back tokens based on market conditions.

Algorithmic Stablecoin

This type of stablecoin uses algorithms and smart contracts to maintain its value, rather than being backed by a reserve of assets. The supply is automatically adjusted based on changes in demand.

All Risks Coverage

This is an insurance policy that provides coverage against all types of risks unless explicitly excluded in the policy contract.

All-Time-High (ATH)

This term refers to the highest value that an asset or stock has ever reached. In the context of cryptocurrency, it refers to the highest price a given cryptocurrency has ever achieved.

All-Time-Low (ATL)

Contrary to ATH, this term refers to the lowest value that an asset or stock has ever reached.

Allocated Gold

This refers to gold that is physically stored in a vault on behalf of an investor. Each investor has ownership of a specific amount of this gold, as opposed to unallocated gold, which is more like a claim against a general pool of gold.


Allocation involves the distribution of resources or stakes among various departments, projects, or participants. In a startup, for instance, equity allocation might involve shares reserved for employees, founders, and investors.

Allocation Efficiency

This is the effectiveness with which resources are distributed among competing uses. In finance, it often refers to the allocation of capital to different investment opportunities.


Allotment involves the distribution of shares or resources in a structured manner. In the context of an IPO, it refers to the distribution of shares to individual investors.


In finance, alpha is the measure of an investment strategy’s ability to beat the market or its risk-adjusted performance relative to a benchmark.

Alpha Version

This is an early version of a software product and may contain bugs. It is usually released to a select group of users for usability testing.


This term refers to a combination of alphabetic and numeric characters and is often used in passwords and codes.


An Altcoin is any cryptocurrency other than Bitcoin. These can range from close variants like Litecoin to far more complex structures like Ethereum.

Altcoin Trader

This is an individual who specializes in trading cryptocurrencies other than Bitcoin, often looking for arbitrage opportunities or riding market trends.

Alternative Investments

These are financial assets that don’t fall into the traditional categories of stocks, bonds, or cash and include real estate, commodities, and derivatives.


This is the process of combining two or more companies into a single entity. Unlike an acquisition, where one company buys another, an amalgamation is more like a merger where all involved entities cease to exist as separate entities.

Amazon S3

Amazon S3 (Simple Storage Service) is a scalable cloud storage service provided by Amazon Web Services (AWS). It allows for data storage and retrieval at any time and is commonly used for web applications, backup systems, and content distribution.

Amended Return

This is a form submitted in order to make corrections to a tax return that has already been filed.


The 5th Anti-Money Laundering Directive of the European Union (AMLD5) aims to prevent money laundering and terrorist financing by enhancing the existing AML regulations, including regulations for cryptocurrencies.


This is a political ideology that advocates for the elimination of the state in favor of individual sovereignty and open markets. The concept is particularly popular among certain segments of the cryptocurrency community.

Anchoring and Adjustment

This is a psychological heuristic where an individual depends too heavily on an initial piece of information to make subsequent judgments during decision-making.

aNFT (Autonomous NFT)

Autonomous NFTs (aNFTs) are a new form of NFTs that are programmable and capable of self-executing actions based on predefined conditions. This opens the door for a myriad of use-cases, including NFTs that change form based on real-world data or NFTs that can autonomously enter into smart contracts.

Angel Investor

An angel investor is an affluent individual who provides capital for a business start-up, usually in exchange for convertible debt or ownership equity.


AngularJS is a JavaScript-based open-source web application framework mainly maintained by Google and by a community of developers to address challenges encountered in developing single-page applications.


An annuity is a financial product that provides regular payments made to an investor over time. They’re typically used as a way to provide a steady income stream, often for retirees.

ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)

ANOVA is a statistical method used to analyze the differences among group means in a sample. The method is useful in experiments and studies involving multiple groups and variables.


A term coined by Nassim Taleb, anti-fragile refers to systems, entities, or methods that actually benefit from shocks, volatility, or uncertainty, as opposed to merely being able to withstand them.

Animal Spirits

Originating from John Maynard Keynes, the term “Animal Spirits” refers to the emotional and psychological influences that drive people’s financial decisions, such as investing. These influences go beyond rational economic considerations and include factors like fear, confidence, and herd behavior.

Annual Percentage Rate (APR)

APR stands for Annual Percentage Rate, a metric that encompasses the yearly cost of borrowing or the yearly return on an investment. Expressed as a percentage, APR incorporates not only the interest rate but also additional fees and costs related to the loan or investment.

Annual Percentage Yield (APY)

APY or Annual Percentage Yield signifies the actual annual rate of return for a deposit or an investment, factoring in the compounding of interest. The frequency with which interest is compounded plays a crucial role in the resulting yield.

Annual Report

An annual report is a comprehensive document released yearly by publicly traded companies. It offers an extensive overview of a company’s operations, financial standing, and future prospects, serving as an invaluable resource for investors.

Annualized Rate of Return

This is a standardized, geometric mean rate of return for an investment, projected over one year. It presumes the investment will grow consistently over the period.


In the blockchain context, “Anonymous” pertains to transactions that are pseudonymous. Although a public key may be visible, it doesn’t directly tie back to an individual’s identity.

Anti-dump/Anti-Dumping Policy

Within the realm of cryptocurrencies, this is a strategy activated through smart contracts to deter large-scale investors, often called “whales,” from manipulating token prices. The strategy usually places limitations on the timing and size of sales.


These are software programs developed to identify and eliminate malicious software. Advanced versions even employ heuristic analyses to discover new types of malware.

Anti-Money Laundering (AML)

AML consists of a legal framework of rules and regulations intended to prevent the laundering of illegally obtained funds. In the crypto world, AML often involves Know Your Customer (KYC) procedures.

Antitrust Law

This involves a collection of laws aimed at encouraging business competition and preventing anti-competitive practices such as monopolies and cartels.


Antivirus software aims to identify, prevent, and remove malicious software from computing systems.


Antpool is a significant cryptocurrency mining pool that combines the computational resources of several participants to collaboratively solve blocks in blockchain networks.


In crypto vernacular, “Apeing” refers to the impulsive act of investing in a new project with little to no research, typically driven by Fear of Missing Out (FOMO).


API stands for Application Programming Interface, a toolkit for building software applications that specify how software components should interact with each other.

Application Layer

This is the uppermost layer in the OSI model that directly supports end-user applications through various protocols and services.

AR Token (Arweave)

This is the native cryptocurrency for the Arweave network, which seeks to offer decentralized, cost-efficient, and high-speed data storage.


Arbitrage involves the act of capitalizing on price differences in different markets for the same asset to generate a profit with minimal risk.

Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT)

This multi-factor model calculates the anticipated return of an asset based on its relationship with multiple macroeconomic variables.


An arbitrageur is someone who engages in arbitrage activities, taking advantage of price differences in separate markets.

Arm Virtual Machine (Qtum)

In the Qtum context, this refers to a streamlined, mobile-focused virtual machine that facilitates the efficient execution of smart contracts and decentralized applications on the Qtum blockchain.

Aroon Indicator

The Aroon Indicator is a technical analysis tool designed to measure the strength of a trend and assess the probability of its continuation or reversal.

Ascending Channel

An Ascending Channel in technical analysis is a chart formation that features higher peaks and higher troughs, suggesting a bullish market sentiment.


In the crypto community, being “Ashdraked” signifies losing your entire investment capital, particularly from attempting to short Bitcoin.


ASIC, or Application-Specific Integrated Circuit, is a specialized chip engineered for a singular application, such as cryptocurrency mining, offering superior performance compared to general-purpose hardware.


This term describes certain blockchains designed to prevent ASIC hardware from gaining a significant advantage, thereby encouraging a more decentralized network.

Ask Price

This is the minimum price a seller is willing to accept for a financial asset. It’s typically contrasted with the bid price in market listings.


An asset is a resource that holds economic value, controlled or owned by an individual, organization, or country.

Asset Class

Asset Class refers to a category of investments sharing similar characteristics, behavior in markets, and regulatory environment. Common classes include equities, commodities, real estate, and fixed income.

Asset Financing

This refers to loans that are secured against a company’s existing assets, which may be liquidated should the company default on repayments.

Asset Swap

This is a derivative contract that enables two parties to exchange different types of assets, commonly a fixed asset for a variable one.

Asset-Backed Tokens

These are cryptocurrency tokens tied to underlying real or digital assets, such as gold or property.

Asset-Based Approach

This valuation method concentrates on determining a company’s net asset value, calculated as the fair market value of total assets minus total liabilities.

Asset-Based Lending

This is a type of lending where loans are secured by a company’s assets, which can be liquidated in case of default.

Assets Under Management (AUM)

AUM, or Assets Under Management, denotes the total value of assets managed by a financial institution or individual portfolio manager, often used as a size or success metric.


Astroturfing is the deceptive practice of simulating grassroots support for a product, cause, or political agenda.


In computing and programming, “Asynchronous” refers to events or operations that don’t happen simultaneously or at the same rate.

Atomic Swap

An Atomic Swap enables a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency exchange between users without requiring a trusted intermediary.


AtomicDEX is a type of decentralized exchange (DEX) that uses atomic swaps for direct, peer-to-peer trading between different types of blockchain tokens.

ATR (Average True Range)

As previously stated, ATR is a technical indicator used to measure market volatility, determining the range of price variations for a specific time period.

Auction Theory

This is an economic subfield focusing on the behaviors and properties of auction markets.

Augmented Reality (AR)

AR or Augmented Reality offers an interactive experience in which real-world elements are enhanced by digital data, often via graphical overlays.


Augur is a decentralized platform built on the Ethereum blockchain for making predictions on the outcome of future events.


An AUM Fee is a charge levied by investment firms or financial advisors based on the total Assets Under Management.


In the world of blockchain technology, Aurora serves as a layer-2 enhancement to boost the performance and affordability of Ethereum. Essentially a sibling network to Ethereum, it offers a more resource-efficient milieu for decentralized applications (dApps).

Australian Dollar (AUD)

This is the official legal tender for Australia, as well as its various territories and some Pacific Island nations.

Automated Clearing House (ACH)

ACH is an electronic network that facilitates various types of financial transactions including, but not limited to, direct deposits and recurrent bill settlements.

Automated Market Maker (AMM)

Within the crypto universe, an AMM is a decentralized exchange protocol which employs mathematical algorithms for asset pricing, eliminating the need for an order book.

Automated Trading

This involves utilizing computer systems, usually equipped with specific software, for executing financial trades based on preset rules and strategies.

Automatic Exercise

This is an automatic process governed by the Options Clearing Corporation (OCC) to exercise options that are in-the-money upon reaching their expiration, within specific regulations.

Autonomous Expenditures

These are expenditures that are not affected by current income levels. They may involve necessary financial commitments like debt repayments or essential infrastructure investments.

Autonomous Organizations

Also known as DAOs in the blockchain context, these are organizations without centralized authority, operating based on smart contracts and member consensus.

Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR)

ASMR is a unique sensory experience characterized by tingling sensations triggered by various stimuli such as sights and sounds.

Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA)

This is a statistical modeling technique used to analyze and forecast time-dependent data.

Avalanche (AVAX)

A blockchain framework designed for the creation of tailored blockchain networks and dApps, optimized for performance.

Average Daily Trading Volume (ADTV)

This metric provides an insight into the average number of shares or contracts traded on a daily basis, which is important for assessing liquidity.

Average Directional Index (ADX)

ADX is a technical analytic tool used to gauge the vigor of a market trend.

Average Down

An investment approach where more shares of a particular financial asset are purchased to bring down the average cost per share.

Average True Range (ATR)

Earlier defined, ATR is a technical analytic indicator used to assess market volatility by breaking down the complete range of an asset’s price for a given time period.


An axiom is a principle or statement accepted as inherently true, which serves as a foundational element in logical or mathematical reasoning.


In the realm of biology, an axon is the extended, thin component of a nerve cell responsible for transmitting electrical impulses away from the cell body of the neuron.


Azure is Microsoft’s cloud computing service that provides a suite of cloud functionalities, including computing resources, storage, and networking.


Back-to-Back Letters of Credit

In intricate financial transactions involving multiple stakeholders, two successive letters of credit are used to secure payments and facilitate the overall transaction process.

Backflush Costing (Backflush Accounting)

An accounting methodology where cost allocation to products occurs post-production rather than during the manufacturing phase.


In the field of organizational management, a backlog represents the pile-up of work tasks, projects, or orders that have been initiated but are still pending completion.


Within the scope of supply chain management, a backorder is an order for a product that cannot be immediately filled due to inventory shortages but will be fulfilled once stocks are replenished.


A contingency financial agreement created as a fallback to safeguard against the risk of unsubscribed financial instruments or to offer an alternative funding source if the primary one fails.


Specific to the cryptocurrency market, backtesting is the practice of applying historical market data to evaluate the performance of a trading strategy in simulated conditions.

Backward Compatibility

This refers to the engineered ability of newer software or technology systems to interact and operate cohesively with older versions.


In crypto-speak, a “bag” refers to a significant amount of a particular cryptocurrency or the entirety of one’s crypto investment portfolio.


The term is used to describe an investor who continues to hold a large amount of a declining cryptocurrency, irrespective of its deteriorating market value.


This is a financial stabilization strategy that shifts some of the burden of a failing financial institution onto its depositors, creditors, or bondholders as a preventative measure against its downfall.


This involves external capital or resource infusion into a financially precarious entity to protect it from insolvency or collapse.

Bait and Switch Scam

A deceptive business tactic in which customers are initially attracted by the promise of a low-cost product or service. However, upon expressing interest, they find that the advertised offering is not available and are directed towards a more expensive alternative.


In the ecosystem of the Tezos blockchain, “Bakers” are specialized nodes responsible for the addition of new blocks to the chain. This process, known as “baking,” is integral to the network’s function.


A term exclusive to the Tezos blockchain, “Baking” refers to the act of generating new transaction blocks and adding them to the blockchain.

Balanced Fund

A mutual fund category that incorporates a blend of equity and fixed-income assets, intending to strike a balance between risk mitigation and potential returns.

Balanced Investment Strategy

An investment philosophy aimed at moderating risks and maximizing potential returns through a diversified allocation of assets in a portfolio.

Balloon Loan

A specific type of loan structure in which regular payments are not designed to fully amortize the loan. The loan ultimately culminates in a large, one-time “balloon payment” to settle the remaining balance.

Balloon Payment

The significant lump-sum payment due at the termination of a balloon loan, settling any remaining outstanding principal and interest.

Bandwagon Effect

A psychological phenomenon where individuals are inclined to follow popular opinion or trends, especially when they believe that a majority of others are doing the same.


The capacity for data transmission in a network, often used to gauge the network’s ability to handle transaction volumes or other activities.

Bank for International Settlements (BIS)

An international organization that functions as a central hub for global central banks, aimed at promoting international monetary stability and cooperation.

Bank Run

A crisis scenario where depositors en masse attempt to withdraw their funds from a bank, typically out of fear regarding the institution’s financial stability.

Banking as a Service (BaaS)

A digital, API-centric model allowing traditional banks to share their infrastructure with third-party developers, enabling the development of innovative financial services.

Bank Secrecy Act (BSA)

American legislation instituted in 1970, aimed at deterring illegal financial activities like money laundering through strict record-keeping and reporting mandates.


The official designation given to individuals or entities that cannot meet their debt obligations and require formal proceedings to resolve their financial situations.

Bar Chart

A graphical method often used in financial studies to represent data sets, employing vertical and horizontal lines to visualize key trends.

Basis Point

A measurement unit used in finance to indicate changes in interest rates or financial percentages, equivalent to 0.01%.


In the realm of cryptocurrency, a “Basket” refers to a bundled set of different digital currencies managed as a singular investment entity.

Basket of Goods

A standardized collection of consumer products and services, used as a reference point for tracking changes in consumer prices and inflation rates.

Batch Auctions

A mechanism in trading that aggregates multiple orders to be executed collectively at specified intervals, rather than executing trades in real-time.

Bayes’ Theorem

A statistical equation employed for computing the probability of an event based on prior conditions or statistical data.

Beacon Chain

In the context of Proof of Stake (PoS) cryptocurrencies like Ethereum 2.0, the Beacon Chain is a foundational blockchain that orchestrates shard chains and manages staking and validator activities.


An investor or trader who anticipates that the market or a particular asset will experience a decline in price over a sustained period.

Bear Call Spread

An options trading approach that involves buying and selling two call options with different strike prices but identical expiration dates, generally utilized to bet on a moderate decline in asset prices.

Bear Hug

In mergers and acquisitions, a “Bear Hug” is an unsolicited but attractive acquisition proposal that is priced above the target company’s current market valuation.

Bear Market

A period in the financial market characterized by a significant drop—usually over 20%—in asset prices, accompanied by investor pessimism and loss of confidence.

Bear Trap

A market manipulation tactic where traders collectively act to drive down the price of an asset, falsely signaling a bear market.


In cryptocurrency markets, a “Bearwhale” is a player with large holdings who sells off significant amounts to intentionally drive down prices, often for personal gain.

Behavioral Finance

An academic discipline that blends psychology and economics to explore the emotional and cognitive influences that affect individual financial decisions.


A point of comparison or standard used for assessing the performance of an asset or investment portfolio relative to the broader market or similar assets.

Benchmark Index

A prominent financial index serving as a comparative standard for assessing the performance of individual securities or investment portfolios.

Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR)

A metric used in cost-benefit analysis to weigh the anticipated benefits of a project or asset against its associated costs.

BEP-2 (Tokenization Standard)

Technical specifications for issuing and managing digital tokens within the Binance Chain ecosystem.


An enhanced version of the ERC-20 standard specifically tailored for the Binance Smart Chain, offering additional functionalities for tokens.


A Binance Smart Chain token standard for creating non-fungible tokens (NFTs), extending the features of the well-known ERC-721 standard.

BEP-95 (Bruno Hard Fork Upgrade)

An update to the Binance Chain, codenamed BEP-95, aimed at expediting the token burn process and influencing the supply dynamics of the Binance Coin (BNB).

Beta (Release)

A phase in software development where a pre-final version is distributed to a select audience to identify bugs and gather feedback under realistic conditions.

Bid Price

The highest price a potential buyer is willing to pay for an asset, commodity, or service in financial markets.

Bid-Ask Spread

The monetary difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay (the bid) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept (the ask) for a particular asset.

Big Tech

Refers to the dominant technology corporations like Facebook, Apple, Google, and Amazon. These companies hold significant market power and influence within their respective industries.

Binary Code

The most basic computer language comprised of just two numbers, 0 and 1, which are used to represent all data and instructions for computing tasks.


The fundamental unit of digital information in computing, represented by either ‘0’ or ‘1.’

Bitcoin ATM (BTM)

Specialized ATMs that facilitate the buying and selling of Bitcoin, often with support for additional cryptocurrencies.

Bitcoin DApps

Decentralized applications that are developed on the Bitcoin blockchain, leveraging its inherent features for enhanced functionality and services.

Bitcoin Dominance (BTCD)

A metric that gauges Bitcoin’s market share in relation to the total market capitalization of all other cryptocurrencies combined.

Bitcoin ETF

An exchange-traded fund crafted to emulate the price fluctuations of Bitcoin, allowing investors to trade Bitcoin via traditional financial exchanges.

Bitcoin Halving

A programmed event in the Bitcoin network that halves the reward given to miners for validating new blocks, thereby reducing the rate of new Bitcoin generation.

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP)

Official documentation suggesting modifications or enhancements to the Bitcoin network, serving as the standardized way to introduce new features or updates.

Bitcoin Misery Index (BMI)

A tool for investment analytics that measures the mood of Bitcoin investors on a scale from 0 to 100, commonly used to identify potential trading opportunities.

Bitcoin NFTs (Ordinals)

Unique digital collectibles or functional assets that are verified and secured on Bitcoin-compatible blockchains.

Bitcoin Pizza

Refers to the first known transaction using Bitcoin in which Laszlo Hanyecz paid 10,000 Bitcoins for two pizzas.


Someone who is highly enthusiastic about Bitcoin’s future potential, often advocating for its wider adoption and use.


A major online forum dedicated to discussions surrounding Bitcoin, other cryptocurrencies, and blockchain technologies.


A special license issued by New York State Department of Financial Services, required for any business involved in cryptocurrency activities within the state.


A payment processing company that specializes in enabling merchants to accept Bitcoin and other digital currencies.


Smaller units of Bitcoin used for easier transaction handling or for displaying prices in more user-friendly terms.


The configuration data loaded onto a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), dictating its operational behavior.

Black Hat Hacker

Individuals who engage in unauthorized activities for personal or financial gain by exploiting vulnerabilities in computer systems and networks.

Black Swan Event

An unpredictable event with a massive impact that is not accounted for in standard risk assessments or forecasting.


A cryptographic hash function used in the Decred blockchain, known for its quick execution and strong security features.


A list of transactions recorded on a digital ledger, which is then added to a blockchain upon verification.

Block Explorer

A web-based tool or platform for viewing detailed metrics and information about individual blocks, transactions, and the overall state of a blockchain.

Block Header

A concise summary of a block on a blockchain that contains essential metadata, such as the block’s hash and the previous block’s hash, which are crucial for chaining blocks together.

Block Height

The numerical identification of a block, indicating its sequential position in a blockchain starting from the first block, known as the genesis block.

Block Lattice (Nano)

A specialized data structure in Nano’s protocol that includes multiple blockchains individually managed by account holders, designed to improve scalability.

Block Producer

Entities, often in Proof-of-Stake (PoS) systems, that are chosen to validate transactions and add new blocks to a blockchain.

Block Reward

The rewards, usually in the form of cryptocurrency tokens, given to miners or validators for successfully adding a new block to the blockchain.

Block Size

The maximum amount of transaction data that a single block on a blockchain can hold, usually quantified in bytes.

Block Time

The average time taken to produce and append a new block to a blockchain.

Block Trade

Large-scale securities transactions that occur outside of standard market exchanges and are often managed by specialized financial entities known as blockhouses.


A decentralized digital ledger technology where blocks of transactions are linked together in a secure and transparent manner.

Blockchain 1.0

The initial phase of blockchain technology primarily focusing on decentralized currencies like Bitcoin.

Blockchain 2.0

The next evolutionary stage of blockchain technology, incorporating features like smart contracts to expand its applications beyond digital currencies.

Blockchain 3.0

The projected final phase of blockchain technology, expected to facilitate global, institutional, and enterprise-level adoption.

Blockchain Explorer

A specialized search engine for scanning and displaying data recorded on a blockchain, similar to but not to be confused with a Block Explorer.

Blockchain Mutual Credit

A mechanism for creating stable digital currencies backed by a network of participants who agree to honor each other’s credits and debts.

Blockchain Transmission Protocol (BTP)

A protocol that allows for cross-chain communication, enabling disparate blockchains to interact and settle transactions between them.

Blockchain Tribalism

The tendency for individuals in the crypto community to vehemently support a particular blockchain or cryptocurrency at the exclusion of others.

Blockchain Trilemma

A conceptual model highlighting the challenge of simultaneously achieving scalability, security, and decentralization in a blockchain network.

Blockchain-As-a-Service (BaaS)

A cloud service that allows organizations to use blockchain technology without the need for internal development or ongoing maintenance.

Blockchain-Enabled Smart Locks

Security solutions using blockchain technology and smart contracts for secure identity verification and access control.

Bluesky Crypto Protocol

A decentralized protocol for social networking, initiated by Twitter, aiming to enable interoperability among various social media platforms through open standards.

Bollinger Band

A technical analysis tool that includes a moving average along with two standard deviation lines, often used to identify price volatility and potential market reversals.

Bonding Curve

A mathematical model describing the correlation between an asset’s supply and price, often used in tokenomics for liquidity management.


Automated software programs designed to execute specific tasks, such as algorithmic cryptocurrency trading.


Rewards offered by crypto projects for completing specific tasks, usually in the form of tokens.

Brave Browser

A web browser that focuses on privacy and security by blocking trackers and ads, while rewarding users with cryptocurrency for opting into privacy-preserving ads.


An innovative token standard modeled after Ethereum’s ERC-20, BRC-20 aims to standardize the issuance and transfer of fungible tokens on the Bitcoin network.


Refers to making permanent, irreversible changes to a cryptocurrency’s underlying code, commonly due to hard forks. This often results in a loss of compatibility with previous versions.

Brian Armstrong

He is the entrepreneur responsible for founding Coinbase, which stands as one of the leading cryptocurrency exchanges in the U.S.


These are technological solutions that enable seamless exchange of information and assets between different, otherwise incompatible, blockchain networks.

Broken Contracts

These are smart contracts with flaws or vulnerabilities that could result in unintended actions or potential exploitation, posing risks to individuals and entities on the network.


Middlemen who facilitate the trading of financial assets, including cryptocurrencies, usually for a fee or commission.


This is a Python-focused development framework aimed at simplifying the process of writing and testing smart contracts, mainly on the Ethereum platform.

Bucket Shops

Often operating illegally, these financial entities offer speculative trading opportunities without actual transfer of the underlying asset, akin to gambling establishments.


These are defects or weaknesses in a software program that can result in unexpected outcomes or system failures.


A purposeful misspelling of ‘build,’ this term has gained traction within the crypto community to stress the importance of constructing real-world products and solutions instead of merely speculating.


Refers to an investor who holds a positive outlook on the future price of an asset, predicting it will go up.

Bull Trap

This is a misleading price movement that falsely suggests a bullish trend, which then reverses and goes down, often ensnaring inexperienced investors.


A method that amalgamates multiple transactions into a single entity to enhance efficiency and scalability within blockchain systems.


Involves the irrevocable elimination of cryptocurrency tokens from active circulation, typically through a specialized smart contract function, thereby diminishing the total supply.

Burn Address

This is a specialized cryptocurrency address where tokens can be sent to be permanently ‘burned’ or removed, typically an address to which no one has the keys.

Burn and Mint Equilibrium

This is a stability model for stablecoins that involves burning tokens when their price falls below the peg and minting new ones when the price rises above it, ensuring a balanced value.

Burn Rate

Refers to the rate at which a startup depletes its initial capital before achieving a positive cash flow, which is crucial for assessing its financial runway and future capital needs.

Byzantine Fault

A fault condition in decentralized systems where nodes may act erratically or even maliciously, complicating the achievement of consensus.

Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT)

The property that allows a decentralized system to operate correctly even when some nodes behave arbitrarily or maliciously.

Byzantine Generals Problem

A conceptual issue in decentralized computing that encapsulates the difficulties in achieving network-wide agreement when nodes can act erratically or maliciously.


A basic unit of digital information, consisting of eight bits, commonly used for data storage and computational tasks.


A form of low-level, machine-agnostic code that is interpretable by a designated machine, like the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).


A blockchain framework engineered to facilitate the transfer and governance of a wide range of assets, both digital and physical, through a distinctive three-layer structure.


A significant update to the Ethereum network enacted in October 2017, part of the larger transition to its Metropolis phase, which introduced multiple protocol improvements.



C++ is an extension of the C programming language that incorporates object-oriented features. Known for its adaptability, C++ is commonly used in cross-platform development, embedded systems, and high-performance applications.

Call Options

Call Options are financial instruments that provide the holder the right but not the obligation to purchase a particular asset at a predetermined price within a given time frame. These options are often used for speculative plays or hedging against potential price increases.


Candlesticks are graphical representations used in charting financial markets. Each ‘candle’ captures four key price points—opening, closing, high, and low—for an asset within a specific time period. They are crucial tools for traders in technical analysis.


Capital refers to the financial resources set aside for investment purposes. This could include money, real estate, or other assets that have the potential to generate returns either through appreciation, dividends, or interest.

Capital Efficiencies

Capital Efficiencies measure how well a company uses its capital to produce revenue and ultimately, profits. This metric is crucial for investors and management alike to understand the operational efficiency of the business.

Capital Funds

Capital Funds are the financial resources acquired through debt or equity for the operational and growth activities of a business. These funds can be used for everything from daily expenditures to strategic acquisitions and investments.


Capitulation is the process of selling off assets, frequently at a significant loss, due to a loss of faith in the asset’s future performance. In the investment world, this is often considered a sign that a market has reached a bottom.

Casascius Coin

Casascius Coins are physical units of Bitcoin, often made of materials like brass, silver, or gold. They serve as a tangible representation of digital currency, making it easier for people to understand and appreciate the concept of cryptocurrency.

Cascading Liquidations

Cascading Liquidations refer to a chain reaction where multiple liquidations happen one after another. This typically occurs in highly leveraged markets and can result in sharp price swings in a short amount of time.


Cash is the most liquid form of currency, typically comprising coins and paper money. It is widely used for day-to-day transactions and is considered the most straightforward way to transfer value.


CashToken pertains to new operation codes that extend Bitcoin Cash’s capabilities. These codes enable the development of sophisticated financial instruments on the network, including fungible and non-fungible tokens.

Casper (Ethereum)

Casper is an initiative within the Ethereum ecosystem aimed at transitioning from a Proof of Work (PoW) to a Proof of Stake (PoS) consensus algorithm. The shift is expected to make the network more scalable and secure.

Cathie Wood

Cathie Wood is a renowned investor and founder of ARK Invest, a firm specializing in investments in disruptive technologies. She has been a significant voice in areas like autonomous vehicles, blockchain, and genomics.


CeDeFi represents a hybrid financial model that combines elements of centralized financial systems with decentralized blockchain protocols. This blend often integrates elements of regulatory compliance, bridging the gap between traditional finance and DeFi.


Censorship is the act of suppressing or modifying content deemed harmful or objectionable by a governing authority. It can happen across various platforms and mediums, both online and offline.

Censorship Resistance

Censorship Resistance refers to the inherent quality of certain networks where no single entity has the ability to prevent participation or access by others. This is a fundamental principle in many blockchain networks.

Central Bank

A Central Bank is the key financial institution in modern economies. It is responsible for monetary policy, currency issuance, and overseeing the commercial banking system within its jurisdiction.

Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC)

CBDCs are digital forms of a country’s native currency and are issued and regulated by its central bank. They aim to bring the benefits of digital currencies while still being regulated by a centralized authority.

Central Ledger

A Central Ledger is a unified record-keeping system where all transactions are stored centrally. It can be either physical or digital and is usually maintained by a single entity or institution.

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) serves as the primary computational component of a computer system. It is responsible for executing instructions from software applications and handling various system tasks.


Centralized refers to an organizational structure where a single node or a small group of nodes hold the majority of control and decision-making authority. This is common in traditional corporations and stands in contrast to decentralized systems.

Centralized Exchange (CEX)

Centralized Exchanges (CEXs) are cryptocurrency trading platforms that are governed by a centralized entity. These platforms are often easier to use but are less secure than their decentralized counterparts due to their central point of failure.

Centre (Consortium)

Centre is a coalition that was founded by companies Coinbase and Circle. Its primary role is to oversee and govern the USD Coin (USDC), a stablecoin pegged to the United States Dollar.

Certificate of Deposit (CD)

A Certificate of Deposit (CD) is a time-bound financial product that locks in a sum of money for a specified period, typically offering a higher interest rate than standard savings accounts. It’s often used as a low-risk investment vehicle.

Chain Reorganization

Chain Reorganization in the blockchain context allows for the replacement and adoption of new blocks, thereby facilitating the creation of a longer and more valid chain. This can happen when there are forks in the network or new information becomes available.

Chain Split

A Chain Split occurs when a single cryptocurrency diverges into two separate entities. This is often due to disagreements within the community about development direction or fundamental principles behind the project.


In UTXO-based cryptocurrencies, Change refers to the residual balance that gets returned to the sender after a transaction has been completed. This is because transactions consume entire UTXOs and produce new ones as change.

Change Address

A Change Address serves as a temporary location where ‘change’ from a transaction is stored before being returned to the original wallet. This is a common feature in many cryptocurrencies that use UTXO-based models.

Changpeng Zhao (CZ)

Changpeng Zhao, commonly known as CZ, is the entrepreneur behind Binance, one of the world’s leading cryptocurrency exchanges. His influence extends across the cryptocurrency ecosystem.


A Chargeback is the reversal of a financial transaction, most commonly seen in credit and debit card payments. This can occur for various reasons, including unauthorized transactions or dissatisfaction with a purchased product.

Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME)

The Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) is one of the leading trading platforms in the U.S., specializing in futures and options trading. It’s a crucial marketplace for commodities, currencies, and various financial instruments.

Chunk (NEAR)

In the context of the NEAR protocol, a Chunk is a subdivided section of a block that results from the network’s sharding mechanism. This allows for higher scalability and transaction throughput.


A Cipher is an algorithm designed for the purpose of encrypting or decrypting information. It’s a foundational element in the field of cryptography, which is vital for secure communications and transactions.


Ciphertext is the encrypted output that results from applying a cipher to a plain text input. It is designed to be unreadable and can only be decrypted using the appropriate key or algorithm.

Circuit Breakers

Circuit Breakers are mechanisms used in trading markets to halt or slow down trading when severe price volatility is detected. This aims to prevent further market destabilization and restore investor confidence.

Circular Economy

A Circular Economy is an economic system that aims for the continuous reuse, recycling, and regeneration of resources, minimizing waste and promoting sustainability. It’s an alternative to the traditional linear economy of “take, make, dispose.”


A Client refers to the hardware or software that accesses services provided by a server. In the realm of blockchain, this can refer to an individual participating node or a software interface that connects to a blockchain network.


Client-side refers to operations that occur on the client’s end of a network as opposed to the server-side. This is particularly important in the context of web applications, where client-side scripts handle user interactions.


The CME Gap refers to the price difference that can arise on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange when trading is suspended due to market closing. This can lead to speculative opportunities for traders when the market reopens.

Cold Storage

Cold Storage is a method of storing digital assets in an offline environment to safeguard them from unauthorized access. This is especially crucial for securing large amounts of cryptocurrency and sensitive data.

Cold Wallet

A Cold Wallet is a digital wallet not connected to the internet, serving as a more secure method for storing assets. This limits its exposure to hacking attempts and other online vulnerabilities.


Collateral is an asset or group of assets that are used to secure a loan. In the context of decentralized finance, these are often cryptocurrencies that are locked in a smart contract.

Collateralized Debt Position (CDP)

A Collateralized Debt Position (CDP) is a financial arrangement, particularly in decentralized finance, where collateral is staked to obtain a loan in another asset. These are governed by smart contracts and are commonly used in DeFi platforms like MakerDAO.

Colored Coins

Colored Coins are tokens that have specific attributes embedded into them, making them unique compared to other tokens from the same blockchain. They are often used to represent real-world assets like real estate or commodities.


A Commodity refers to basic goods that can be interchanged with goods of the same type across markets. Commodities like gold, oil, and agricultural products have their own specialized trading markets.

Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC)

The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is the U.S. federal agency responsible for regulating the trading of commodity futures and options markets. It aims to ensure market integrity and protect consumers from fraudulent activities.

COMP Token

The COMP Token serves as the foundational asset of the Compound protocol. It allows users to participate in governance and other activities within the Compound ecosystem.

Composability (DeFi)

In the world of decentralized finance (DeFi), composability is the architectural principle that enables various blockchain components to be assembled effortlessly, facilitating the birth of new applications and services.

Composable DeFi

This refers to the seamless interaction among different DeFi protocols. It creates an ecosystem where various DeFi applications can coexist and contribute to the development of innovative financial products and use cases.

Composable Token

An ERC-998 Composable Token enhances the abilities of non-fungible tokens (NFTs) by enabling them to own other ERC-20 and ERC-721 tokens, thereby making NFTs more versatile in terms of asset management.

Concentrated Liquidity

This innovation enhances the efficiency of capital allocation for Liquidity Providers (LPs). It provides new avenues for formulating liquidity provision strategies, thereby maximizing the utility of staked capital.


Within the context of cryptocurrencies, a confirmation signifies the number of blocks added to the blockchain since a transaction was included, serving as a measure of transaction security.


When a cryptocurrency transaction gets included in a block and added to the blockchain, each subsequent block serves as an extra confirmation, bolstering the transaction’s security and integrity.


Consensus is the collective agreement among network participants on the sequencing and content of blocks in a blockchain, ensuring the network’s decentralized and secure nature.

Consensus Mechanism

Acting as the cornerstone technology for blockchain functionalities, consensus mechanisms are protocols that facilitate agreement among network nodes on the state of the distributed ledger.


ConsenSys is a company specializing in blockchain technology. It provides a range of services, from developer toolkits to enterprise-level solutions.


In trading terms, consolidation happens when a cryptocurrency trades within a defined range, indicating market uncertainty about the asset’s next directional move.

Consortium Blockchain

This type of blockchain is operated by a select group of entities, typically businesses or organizations, sharing information that is not publicly disclosed, while still utilizing blockchain’s transparency and immutability features.

Consumer Price Index (CPI)

CPI is an economic indicator that tracks the price changes of a specified basket of consumer goods and services, offering insights into inflation and cost-of-living adjustments.


While traditional contracts are legally binding agreements between parties, in the blockchain world, smart contracts automate agreement terms through code, executing actions when predefined conditions are met.

Contract Account

In the realm of cryptocurrencies, a contract account possesses not just a crypto balance but also associated code that dictates its functionalities.

Contract for Difference (CFD)

A CFD is a financial contract that obligates the buyer to pay the seller the difference between the current and future value of an asset, effectively allowing speculation on price movements without ownership of the asset.


Within blockchain systems, a coordinator is a specialized client tasked with assisting nodes in verifying the legitimacy of their ledger copies by referencing specific transactions.

Core Wallet

A Core Wallet holds the complete blockchain record, as opposed to only a fraction of it, enabling more extensive functionality and higher security.

Corporate Treasury

This is an internal department within a company that oversees liquidity management, risk mitigation, and capital allocation in alignment with both short-term and long-term business strategies.


In financial markets, a correction is a decline in an asset’s price by at least 10%, usually occurring after a period of excessive valuation, serving as a market recalibration.

Counter-Terrorism Financing

This term refers to strategies and initiatives aimed at thwarting the funding channels for terrorism, effectively crippling their operational capabilities.

CPU Miner

CPU mining is the process of utilizing a computer’s central processing unit to generate cryptocurrencies, although it’s generally less efficient than using specialized mining hardware.

Craig Wright

An Australian computer scientist, Craig Wright is most notably linked to Bitcoin SV and has controversially claimed to be Bitcoin’s elusive creator, Satoshi Nakamoto.

Credit Rating

This numerical score is used by financial institutions to evaluate an individual’s creditworthiness, essentially predicting the likelihood of loan repayment.

Credit Risk

Credit risk quantifies the chances of a financial loss for a lender due to a borrower’s inability to meet repayment obligations.

Cross Margin

Also known as “Spread Margin,” this margin method leverages the entire available balance to prevent position liquidation, allowing profits and losses from other positions to affect the margin of a losing position.

Cross-Border Trading

This refers to the practice of trading assets globally while using local currencies, thereby enabling a more diversified and expansive financial market.


Cross-chain technology facilitates the interaction between disparate blockchain networks, allowing for the seamless transfer of value and information.

Cross-Chain Communication

This technology allows for different blockchain protocols to authenticate and verify data and transactions without requiring a centralized intermediary.

Cross-chain Contract Calls

These are smart contract executions that facilitate the movement of assets or information between different blockchain networks, enhancing the versatility and capabilities of decentralized applications.


Crowdfunding is a financing method that aggregates small contributions from a large number of people, usually via online platforms, to support a project or venture.


In the context of the Kusama and Polkadot networks, Crowdloans allow new projects to raise funds using DOT or KSM tokens to secure network slots.

Crypto Debit Card

This specialized debit card enables users to make purchases using their cryptocurrency holdings rather than traditional fiat currency.

Crypto Invoicing

This process involves generating invoices that specify payments to be made in cryptocurrency for goods or services rendered.

Crypto Loan

Much like traditional secured loans, a crypto loan requires pledging an asset (usually cryptocurrency) as collateral to secure funding.

Crypto Winter

This term describes a period in the crypto market characterized by a significant drop in the prices of major cryptocurrencies from their all-time highs.


Cryptoassets include any digital assets that leverage cryptographic methods to ensure secure transactions and control the creation of new units.


These are specialized forms of digital currencies that utilize cryptographic techniques for secure transactions and control mechanisms.

Cryptocurrency Money Laundering

This illegal practice involves converting ill-gotten fiat money into cryptocurrency and moving it through various channels in an attempt to conceal its origin.

Cryptocurrency Pairs

These are asset pairs used on cryptocurrency exchanges to facilitate the trading of one token for another.

Cryptographic Hash Function

These specialized functions take an input of varying size and produce a fixed-size hash output, commonly used in various cryptographic applications.


Cryptography is the study and practice of techniques for securing data, ensuring that unauthorized parties cannot decipher the information.


This illicit activity involves hijacking someone else’s computer resources without their consent to mine cryptocurrencies.


Cryptology encompasses both the study of cryptographic techniques and their countermeasures, known as cryptanalysis.


CryptoPunks are a unique collection of NFTs (Non-Fungible Tokens) that exist on the Ethereum blockchain. These digital collectibles set a precedent for the NFT space, each with its own distinctive traits and value.


Currency serves as a universally accepted medium of exchange that standardizes the valuation of goods and services. It can be in digital or physical form and is essential for trade.

Currency Crisis

A currency crisis is a severe financial upheaval where a country’s national currency loses its value rapidly, causing investors to lose confidence in holding or investing in assets tied to that currency.

Curve AMO

Curve AMO is specialized automated market maker software focused on stablecoins. It allows for the seamless swapping of multiple cryptocurrencies while maintaining low slippage and fees.


In the realm of cryptocurrencies, custodial services are those where the service provider holds control over the customer’s funds during the period of service usage.


A custodian is an entity entrusted with the safekeeping of assets for either an individual or an institution. This role is pivotal for various financial and legal purposes.


Custody refers to the authorized care of financial assets, managed by a financial institution, with measures in place to prevent loss or theft.


The Cypherpunk movement advocates for the widespread application of cryptography and other privacy-enhancing technologies to bring about societal and political change.


Daedalus Wallet

Daedalus Wallet is an open-source, multi-platform wallet employing hierarchical-deterministic technology. This allows the generation of an infinite number of keys from a single seed, offering high scalability and security.

DAO Summoning

DAO summoning is the process of initiating or launching a new Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO). Although commonly used when establishing a new Moloch DAO, the term can be applied to the creation of any DAO.

Dark Web

The Dark Web is a secluded area of the internet that is not indexed by traditional search engines and can only be accessed via specialized software and configurations.


Darknodes form the backbone of the RenVM, a decentralized network of computers that provide computational power and storage space in return for compensation, subject to specific terms.

Data Privacy

Data privacy is a specialized field focused on safeguarding sensitive data, ensuring proper handling and storage to prevent unauthorized access or breaches.

Data Scraping

Data scraping, or web scraping, involves the extraction of specific information from websites, storing it either in a spreadsheet or a local file for further use or analysis.

Data Validation

Data validation is a procedure aimed at verifying and ensuring the quality, integrity, and accuracy of data before it is utilized in any computational or analytical operations.

Date of Launch

This term is often used to signify the day when Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) will officially make their tokens available for purchase to the public.

Day Trading

Day trading involves the rapid buying and selling of financial assets with the aim of capitalizing on small intraday price fluctuations.

Dead Cat Bounce

A “Dead Cat Bounce” is a transient recovery in asset prices following a substantial decline, often misleading investors into thinking a full recovery is underway.

Dead Coin

A “Dead Coin” refers to a cryptocurrency that has ceased to exist, either due to a lack of interest, development, or both.

Death Cross

The Death Cross is a pessimistic technical trading indicator that materializes when a short-term moving average (usually 50-day) crosses below a long-term moving average (typically 200-day), signaling a potential large-scale sell-off.

Decentralization Maximalism

This concept espouses the philosophy that extreme levels of decentralization are not only beneficial but also preferable, often to the point where any form of centralized control or regulation is deemed unnecessary.

Decentralization Ratio

The Decentralization Ratio, or DR, quantifies the portion of decentralized collateral as compared to the total stablecoin supply that is backed by said assets.


Decentralized systems operate without a central authority, enabling various nodes or participants to collaborate in a distributed manner to achieve a common objective.

Decentralized API (dAPI)

A Decentralized API (dAPI) is an evolution of traditional APIs, designed to be inherently compatible with blockchain technologies. It was initially conceptualized by the API3 protocol.

Decentralized Applications (DApps)

DApps are applications that operate on decentralized networks, effectively eliminating any single point of failure and offering increased security and resilience.

Decentralized Autonomous Initial Coin Offerings (DAICO)

DAICOs are a more democratic form of ICOs that involve a layer of governance, allowing participants to vote on fund return conditions and other key decisions.

Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAO)

A DAO is a completely automated organization controlled by written code and smart contracts on a blockchain, rather than being operated by human management.

Decentralized Currency

A decentralized currency operates independently of any centralized financial institution, allowing for direct peer-to-peer transactions.

Decentralized Database

Decentralized databases use blockchain technology to distribute data across a network of nodes. This architecture ensures high availability, security, and resistance to censorship.

Decentralized Exchange (DEX)

A DEX is an exchange platform that enables peer-to-peer trading of cryptocurrencies without the requirement for an intermediary entity to facilitate the transactions.

Decentralized Governance

Decentralized governance refers to a governance model where decision-making is dispersed across participants in a blockchain network or a decentralized application (dApp).

Decentralized Identifier (DID)

A Decentralized Identifier (DID) is a unique identifier issued by a decentralized platform, serving as proof of digital identity ownership without relying on a central authority.

Decentralized Marketplace

Decentralized marketplaces facilitate peer-to-peer trading on a global scale, bypassing the need for middlemen. These marketplaces are powered by blockchain technology.

Decentralized Network

In a decentralized network, a series of independent yet interconnected nodes collaborate to fulfill a shared objective, without a central authority overseeing their actions.

Decentralized Order Book

In a decentralized order book, trade orders are matched through a distributed network of nodes, as opposed to a centralized mechanism, offering enhanced security and privacy.

Decentralized Payment Network

A decentralized payment network is a system that allows for monetary transactions without the necessity for a trusted third party to secure and oversee the network. This type of structure enhances privacy, security, and overall control for users, merchants, and vendors involved.

Decentralized Social Media

This refers to a social media platform that operates on blockchain technology. Unlike traditional social media, which is centralized, decentralized social media platforms aim to give users greater control over their data and interactions.

Decentralized Stablecoin

Stablecoins in a decentralized setup are transparent and non-custodial, with little to no oversight from third-party organizations. They offer a balance of stability and decentralization, ensuring both price pegging and a trustless ecosystem.


Decryption is the act of converting encrypted information back into a format that can be understood by humans or computers. This is the reverse process of encryption and is essential for secure data transmission.

Deep Web

The “deep web” denotes the portion of the internet that is not indexed by conventional search engines. This hidden realm can include anything from private databases to restricted-access forums.


Short for “Decentralized Finance,” DeFi refers to the transformation of traditional financial services into decentralized formats, mainly using blockchain technology.

DeFi Aggregator

A DeFi aggregator is a platform that collates trades from various decentralized finance services into one centralized platform. This provides users with the opportunity to access the best trading conditions across multiple platforms.

DeFi Degens

“DeFi degens” refers to individuals or groups that frequent the more risky and speculative corners of the decentralized finance ecosystem. The term is often associated with pump and dump schemes and other high-risk behaviors.


Deflation is the term for a decrease in the overall price level of goods and services in an economy. It’s the opposite of inflation and can have both positive and negative implications.

Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW)

This is a secondary layer of security within a blockchain’s consensus mechanism. Designed to prevent 51% attacks, dPoW provides an additional layer of validation for transactions.

Delegated Proof-of-Stake (dPOS)

An alternative to both Proof-of-Work and Proof-of-Stake, the Delegated Proof-of-Stake algorithm aims to achieve consensus more efficiently and inclusively, often involving a voting system among nodes.


Delisting is the procedure through which an asset—be it a stock, cryptocurrency, or another form of investment—is removed from a public trading exchange.


This is a charge levied for holding onto an asset for an extended period. Often applied to commodities like gold, it incentivizes liquidity and spending over hoarding.

Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attack

A DoS attack is an intentional disruption of a computer or network service, rendering it inaccessible to its intended users, often by overwhelming it with a flood of useless traffic.

Depth Chart

This graphical representation displays buying and selling requests on a particular asset. Displayed as limit orders, the chart provides insights into where the market is most likely to settle transactions.


A derivative is a financial instrument whose value is tied to that of an underlying asset. Examples include futures contracts and options.

Derivatives Market

The derivatives market is a financial market for derivative instruments like futures contracts or options. These instruments derive their value from underlying assets, which can even include cryptocurrencies.

Desktop Wallet

A desktop wallet is a software-based, usually non-custodial wallet for storing cryptocurrencies. It resides on a user’s desktop computer.

Deterministic Wallet

This type of wallet uses a single seed to generate keys and addresses. It allows for simpler backup processes and enhanced security measures.

Dex Aggregator

These are blockchain-powered platforms that aggregate trading pairs and liquidity from different decentralized exchanges, offering better trading conditions and liquidity for cryptocurrency traders.

Dharma Protocol

This is an open-source framework that enables the development of debt markets on the Ethereum blockchain, thereby expanding the utility of blockchain technology.

Diamond Hands

The term “Diamond Hands” is a colloquial expression used to describe investors who maintain their position in an asset, even if its value decreases significantly.


This is a metric indicating the computational effort required to add a new block to a blockchain. Higher difficulty levels make it more resource-intensive for miners to validate transactions.


Digital technologies refer to electronic tools capable of creating, storing, or processing data. These technologies have revolutionized various industries, including finance and art.

Digital Art

Digital art encompasses artworks and media created using digital technologies. In the realm of blockchain, this often means NFT-based art pieces.

Digital Asset

In the broadest sense, a digital asset signifies a digital representation of value. This can be anything from a unit of cryptocurrency to digital real estate in a virtual environment.

Digital Asset Custodian

A digital asset custodian is an entity responsible for safeguarding a client’s digital assets. These services are often used by institutional investors for enhanced security.

Digital Asset Ecosystem

This term is an umbrella that covers all aspects of the digital asset world, from cryptocurrencies to Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs), and the platforms that facilitate their trade and use.

Digital Barter Economy

This modern take on the barter system enables easy and efficient trading of both virtual and physical goods globally, leveraging digital technologies to overcome traditional limitations.

Digital Commodity

A digital commodity is an asset that exists purely in digital form, as opposed to being a physical object.

Digital Currency

This is currency that is exclusively electronic, devoid of a physical form like coins or paper money.

Digital Dollar

A “digital dollar” would be a digital currency version of the U.S. dollar, possibly as a Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC).

Digital Identity

This refers to the digital credentials that a person or organization uses to identify themselves in online environments.

Digital Signature

This cryptographic tool is used to authenticate the source of a digital document or transaction.

Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA)

DSA is used specifically for creating digital signatures. Unlike encryption algorithms, it is solely focused on verifying the authenticity of digital messages or documents.


In the context of cryptocurrency, “Dildo” refers to the red or green vertical lines seen in market charts. They indicate the fluctuating prices of cryptocurrencies.


A dip is a decline in the financial markets, either short-lived or sustained over a longer period.

Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)

DAG is a data structure used in data modeling and is increasingly being employed as a consensus mechanism in certain cryptocurrencies.


Discord is an online communication platform originally designed for gamers but now widely used for various communities, including those in the crypto space.

Distributed Consensus

This refers to the collective agreement achieved among various nodes in a distributed network, often accomplished through a consensus algorithm.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack

A DDoS attack is a malicious attempt to make an online service unavailable by overwhelming it with traffic from multiple sources.

Distributed Ledger

These ledgers store data across multiple decentralized nodes, enabling a secure and transparent record-keeping system.

Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)

DLT is a database architecture that allows data to be stored and synchronized across multiple locations, and is the backbone of blockchain technology.


Distribution refers to the allocation or transfer of assets or tokens, often as part of a marketing strategy or reward mechanism.


Divergence occurs when an asset’s price moves in the opposite direction to a related indicator, signaling potential trend reversal or acceleration.


A dividend is a payment made to shareholders of a corporation, often in the form of cash or additional shares.

DLT License

A DLT license allows companies to operate legally within a jurisdiction that recognizes distributed ledger technology, such as blockchain.

DLT Regulations

These are the rules and guidelines enacted by governments or regulatory bodies to govern the use of distributed ledger technologies.

DLT Service Provider

A DLT service provider offers blockchain-related services to individuals or organizations, potentially covering a wide array of functionalities from development to consultancy.

DLT Wallet

A DLT wallet is a digital wallet that stores assets based on distributed ledger technology, such as blockchain-based cryptocurrencies.


Doge refers to both a meme and a cryptocurrency (Dogecoin) inspired by that meme. The meme is often used for comedic or satirical purposes, while the cryptocurrency has gained widespread popularity.


Dogecoin is a cryptocurrency that started as a joke but has since gained a following. It was inspired by the Doge meme and initially introduced to mock other cryptocurrencies.

Dollar-Cost Averaging (DCA)

DCA is an investment strategy that involves purchasing a fixed dollar amount of a particular asset at regular intervals, regardless of its price. It aims to reduce the impact of volatility.


Dominance, in the context of cryptocurrency markets, refers to the proportion of the total market capitalization that a particular cryptocurrency holds.

Double Spend

Double spending is a situation in which a single digital token is spent more than once, usually due to a failure in the system’s consensus mechanism.


Doxxing is the act of publicly revealing previously private personal information about an individual or organization.

dPoSec (Distributed Proof of Security)

A consensus model developed to fortify a blockchain network against vulnerabilities, even if up to one-third of its nodes are compromised. dPoSec augments traditional distributed node networks to reinforce resilience and reliability.


Represents the most significant decrease in the value of an investment or asset from its highest point over a specific timeframe. It’s an essential metric for assessing both risk and historical performance.


A token standard on the Dogecoin network enabling the creation of fungible tokens, akin to Ethereum’s ERC-20. It broadens the utility of the Dogecoin ecosystem by allowing additional asset types.


A proposal aimed at extending Bitcoin’s capabilities by introducing sidechains. This model intends to enhance Bitcoin’s scalability and introduce new functionalities.

Dual Governance

A governance system within a DAO that involves two separate entities for decision-making rather than a single, centralized body. It aims to distribute authority and reduce single points of failure.

Dual-Token Economy/Model (Two-Token Economy)

A framework in blockchain projects that utilizes two distinct tokens for different purposes: one for in-network utility and another for capital generation or security.


Refers to a rapid and substantial selling off of digital assets, usually triggered by market sentiment or strategic plays.


A mass sale of a particular cryptocurrency in a short timeframe, usually causing its price to plummet. This term is often associated with coordinated market manipulations.

Dust Transactions

Minuscule amounts of Bitcoin residing in a wallet, which are often not worth moving due to transaction fees.

Dusting Attack

A subversive technique that disseminates tiny amounts of cryptocurrency to numerous wallets to later identify the owners and possibly subject them to phishing attacks.

DYCO (Dynamic Coin Offering)

An innovative crowdfunding method, conceptualized by DAO Maker, that employs USD-backed utility tokens to mitigate investor risk.


Stands for “Do Your Own Research,” a principle urging investors to thoroughly scrutinize an investment opportunity before committing any funds.



A digital alternative to physical signatures, involving various electronic identifiers like symbols or sound, which validate a document or contract.

Economic Utility

In economics, this is the satisfaction or benefit derived from the consumption of goods or services.

Edge Nodes

Computing devices that act as entry points to a network, connecting to other nodes and serving end-users.

Effective Proof-of-Stake

Harmony’s custom version of the Proof-of-Stake consensus algorithm that aims to balance security and decentralization.


An important update to the Ethereum network that has simplified its transaction fee structure, benefiting users and developers alike.

Electrum Wallet

A desktop Bitcoin wallet compatible with Windows, macOS, and Linux, known for its straightforward user interface.


An acronym for “Explain Like I’m 5,” which calls for simplistic explanations of complex topics.

Elliott Waves

A popular analytical tool primarily used in stock and cryptocurrency trading to predict market trends.

EMA (Exponential Moving Average)

A technical indicator in market analysis that prioritizes recent data points while also factoring in older ones, providing a more responsive measure of an asset’s price movement.

Email Spoofing

A deceptive tactic where an email is manipulated to appear as if it originated from a different source, usually for phishing or fraud.


The rate at which new digital coins are minted and released into circulation.


The process of converting data into a code to prevent unauthorized access.

Enterprise Blockchain

The adoption of blockchain technology for specific, non-speculative business applications. This could involve either public or private blockchains depending on organizational needs.

Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA)

A consortium of organizations collaboratively working to advance the Ethereum network and its enterprise-level adoption.


In machine learning, refers to one complete forward and backward pass of all the training examples.


The residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting liabilities, often viewed as a claim on future revenues or assets.

Erasure Coding

A data protection method that fragments, expands, and encodes information across multiple locations for redundancy and fault tolerance.


A proposed standard aiming to represent audit reports uniformly on the Ethereum blockchain, enhancing transparency and accountability.


Introduced by Enjin, this digital token standard on the Ethereum network can represent multiple classes of both fungible and non-fungible assets, offering improved security over previous standards.


The foundational token standard on Ethereum, used to create fungible tokens that can be traded, transferred, and used in various decentralized applications.


An upgraded Ethereum token standard that allows for more secure and efficient transfer of tokens to digital wallets via smart contracts.


A unique token standard on Ethereum used for creating non-fungible tokens (NFTs), which represent unique assets or collectibles.


An extension of the ERC-20 standard that introduces new ways to interact with token contracts while maintaining backward compatibility.


An Ethereum token standard that addresses the limitations of ERC-20, particularly concerning the execution of calls in transfers and approvals.


Designed for Delaware corporations, this standard creates ERC-20 tokens that each represent an unnumbered share in the corporation’s equity.


An evolving Ethereum token standard developed to facilitate subscription-based transactions between businesses and consumers.


A financial arrangement where a third party holds and regulates assets or funds for two parties involved in a transaction.


Competitive video gaming where individuals or teams compete against each other, often in organized events that offer significant monetary rewards.


A commonly traded cryptocurrency pair that values Ethereum in terms of Bitcoin, often used to gauge Ethereum’s market performance relative to Bitcoin.


The Proof-of-Work mining algorithm used primarily in Ethereum and other ETH-based cryptocurrencies.


The native cryptocurrency of the Ethereum platform, utilized for transactions and computational services.

Ethereum Difficulty

A variable that contributes to the security and stability of the Ethereum network, particularly as it transitions towards a Proof-of-Stake mechanism.

Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP)

Standards and protocols proposed for enhancements to the Ethereum network, covering various aspects like core protocols and APIs.

Ethereum Request For Comment (ERC)

A procedure for suggesting improvements to the Ethereum network from the development community.

Ethereum Transaction

A cryptographically secured instruction that updates the Ethereum network’s state.

Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)

The computational environment where smart contracts are executed, ensuring consistent performance across all Ethereum nodes.

Event Triggers

In blockchain smart contracts, these are coded conditions that, once met, emit events or write logs onto the blockchain, which can then be acted upon by frontend applications.


Cryptocurrency exchanges are platforms where users can swap fiat money for cryptocurrencies or trade one cryptocurrency for another. These platforms are a linchpin in the crypto ecosystem, facilitating liquidity and enabling price discovery.

Exchange Traded Fund (ETF)

An ETF is a type of investment vehicle that tracks an array of assets, such as equities, bonds, or cryptocurrencies. It’s traded on traditional stock exchanges, offering a way for investors to diversify without owning the individual assets.

Exit Scam

This deceptive practice occurs when a project or business abruptly vanishes after collecting funds from investors. Not limited to the crypto world, exit scams are a considerable risk in various investment scenarios where upfront capital is required.



A fakeout in market terms is a brief, misleading move that leads traders to erroneously believe a new market trend is forming. It is temporary and often causes incorrect trading decisions.

Falling Knife

This term describes an asset whose price is rapidly declining, often inspiring caution among traders since catching a “falling knife” can result in significant losses.

Falling Wedge

Unlike symmetrical triangles with no discernable direction, falling wedges have a downward trajectory but are typically bullish in their implication, often indicating a potential upward breakout.

Fan Token

These are specific cryptocurrencies created by sports teams. Holding a fan token can give you voting rights on team decisions and access to exclusive rewards and discounts.

FATF Travel Rule

The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) requires this rule, mandating that virtual asset service providers share information for large transactions. It’s part of an effort to combat money laundering and other illicit financial activities.


In the crypto world, a faucet is generally a website or app where users can earn small amounts of cryptocurrency by completing simple tasks.

Fee Tiers

This is the structured system that determines the fees for various activities on a cryptocurrency exchange, such as deposits, withdrawals, and trades.


Fiat currency is authorized money issued by a government, often represented either as physical notes and coins or as digital money in banks.

Fiat On-Ramp

This term refers to the pathways for converting fiat money into cryptocurrency. These are essential interfaces between the traditional financial system and the crypto ecosystem.

Fiat-Pegged Cryptocurrency

These are digital assets whose value is tied to a traditional fiat currency, providing stability in price.

Fibonacci Retracement Level

Using Fibonacci ratios, this method identifies potential support and resistance levels for a financial asset. It’s a popular tool among traders for predicting potential price movements.

Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)

An FPGA is a flexible integrated circuit that can be reprogrammed post-manufacture to fit various computational needs, often used in hardware acceleration for specific tasks.

Financial Action Task Force (FATF)

This global entity sets international standards aimed at combating money laundering and the funding of terrorism and other illicit activities.

Financial Crime Enforcement Network (FinCEN)

Part of the U.S. Treasury, FinCEN is tasked with collecting and analyzing financial transaction data to combat money laundering, terrorist financing, and other financial crimes.

Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre (FINTRAC)

Canada’s counterpart to FinCEN, FINTRAC performs similar roles in monitoring and analyzing financial transactions to detect illegal activities.

First In, First Out (FIFO)

This accounting method is used for determining the cost basis of assets for tax calculation, assuming that the assets acquired first are the first to be sold.

First-Mover Advantage (FMA)

This advantage is gained by a company that pioneers a new product or service, capturing market share and brand loyalty before competitors enter the field.


In crypto parlance, a “fish” is an investor with a relatively small amount of capital invested in cryptocurrencies.

Flash Crash

This term denotes a rapid and sharp decline in asset prices within a very short time frame, often due to automated trading or market manipulation.

Flash Loan

A unique concept in decentralized finance (DeFi), a flash loan involves borrowing and repaying a large sum of liquidity within the same transaction, often to take advantage of arbitrage opportunities.

Flash Loan Attack

In this scenario, a bad actor exploits a vulnerability in a smart contract through the use of a flash loan, usually to siphon off funds.


An organization focused on mitigating the negative impact of Maximal Extractable Value (MEV), Flashbots aims to create a more equitable trading environment.


These are cryptocurrencies that are pegged to a cost-of-living index rather than a specific asset or fiat currency.


This term describes the hypothetical scenario where Ethereum’s market capitalization surpasses that of Bitcoin, signifying a shift in market leadership.


This investment strategy involves purchasing assets with the sole intention of reselling them at a profit in a short timeframe.


An acronym for “Fear of Missing Out,” this emotional state often drives impulsive investment decisions.

Fork (Blockchain)

A fork in blockchain terms results in the division of a single blockchain into two, both running concurrently but governed by different sets of rules.

Fork (Software)

This occurs when the source code of an open-source software is modified to create an entirely new program.

Fork Choice Rule

Specific to Ethereum, this mechanism enables network nodes to reach consensus on the canonical chain in the event of competing forks.

Fractional Stablecoins

These are stablecoins backed by a dual mechanism: both collateral and algorithmic interventions, offering a hybrid form of stability.

Fraud Proof

This technology serves as a guarantee in decentralized environments using Optimistic Rollups, offering a safeguard against fraudulent transactions.

Front Running

The act of placing a transaction ahead in the queue based on insider knowledge of future transactions, often considered unethical or illegal.


Standing for “Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt,” FUD refers to the deliberate spread of disinformation to affect market sentiment.


A person who actively spreads FUD to manipulate market conditions.

Full Node

These nodes hold a complete copy of a blockchain’s history and are crucial for enforcing its consensus rules.

Fully Diluted Value (FDV)

FDV represents the total market capitalization of a cryptocurrency if its maximum supply were in circulation.

Fully Homomorphic Encryption

This is an advanced encryption scheme that allows complex computations to be performed on encrypted data, producing an encrypted result that, when decrypted, matches the outcome of operations performed on the plaintext.

Fundamental Analysis (FA)

FA involves assessing economic and financial indicators to evaluate an asset’s intrinsic value, often used for long-term investment strategies.

Funding Payments

These are periodic transfers between traders to reduce discrepancies between the spot and perpetual market prices of an asset.


In the crypto context, fungibility refers to the interchangeability of individual units of a token or coin.


Futo is an entity dedicated to the development and investment in decentralized technologies and initiatives.


A futures contract is a legally binding agreement to buy or sell an asset at a predetermined price at a specific future date, commonly used for hedging or speculative purposes.



Gains refer to the upward movement in the value or profit of an asset. In the context of cryptocurrency, this typically means the increase in the value of a particular token or coin.

Game Channels

An advanced technological feature in blockchain gaming, game channels eliminate the need for waiting on block confirmations by allowing games and dApps to operate off-chain. This ensures near real-time, secure gameplay.

Game Theory

Game theory is a methodological framework used to simulate interactive environments or ‘games.’ Researchers use it to model how individuals or entities are likely to react to various scenarios.


Also known as play-to-earn (P2E) games, GameFi represents the intersection of the gaming and cryptocurrency spaces. These games incorporate blockchain and cryptocurrency elements, offering players the opportunity to earn revenue from their in-game assets.


In Ethereum, ‘Gas’ serves as the computational unit required to execute transactions or smart contracts. It acts as the ‘fuel’ that powers operations on the Ethereum network.

Gas Limit

Within the Ethereum ecosystem, the gas limit is the maximum quantity of gas a user is prepared to expend on a given transaction.

Gas Price

The gas price in Ethereum is the cost a user is willing to pay for the transaction to be processed.

Gas Station Networks (GSN)

GSN enables the construction of dApps in a way that relieves users from the need to own Ether or ETH for transaction fees. This improves user experience and facilitates easier onboarding.

Gavin Wood

Gavin Wood is a key figure in blockchain, co-founding both Parity Technologies and Ethereum.


In the cryptocurrency context, ‘Gems’ are lesser-known, low-market-cap coins believed to have significant growth potential or to be undervalued.

Genesis Block

The Genesis Block is the inaugural block in any new blockchain, also commonly referred to as block 0 or block 1.

Geotagged NFT

Geotagged NFTs pair 3D digital artwork with their actual geographic locations. This allows owners to possess both the physical and virtual versions of the artwork without disturbing its original infrastructure.


Short for Go Ethereum, Geth is a command-line interface for developers, enabling them to run full Ethereum nodes, mine the cryptocurrency, and deploy smart contracts.


GitHub is a leading platform for code hosting, offering a collaborative space for developers to work on various software projects.

Goguen Phase

Cardano’s Goguen phase is dedicated to the introduction and development of smart contracts and decentralized applications (DApps) on its blockchain.

Gold-Backed Cryptocurrency

This is a type of cryptocurrency where each coin or token is pegged to a specific amount of gold, such as one gram per coin.

Golden Cross

A Golden Cross is a bullish indicator in technical trading, signifying a potential price increase. It occurs when a 50-day moving average crosses above a 200-day moving average.

Google Authenticator

This is a software-based authentication system that produces unique, time-sensitive codes on your mobile device for added security.


In cryptocurrency, governance refers to the framework or system through which decisions are made for the blockchain project.

Governance Token

A governance token grants its holders the right to vote on various aspects affecting an ecosystem.

GPG Encryption

GPG, or GNU Privacy Guard, is a free and open-source alternative to PGP, used for securing communications and data.

Graphical Processing Unit (GPU)

Though initially designed for rendering 3D graphics, GPUs have found use in cryptocurrency mining due to their computational efficiency.

Gray Swan Event

A Gray Swan Event is an impactful event that is predictable yet considered to have a low likelihood of occurring.

Greater Fool Theory

This theory posits that an overvalued asset can always be sold to someone (‘the greater fool’) who believes they can sell it for even more.

Green Candle

In trading charts, a green candle indicates that the closing price was higher than the opening price, signaling a bullish market sentiment.

Group Mining

Contrast to solo mining, group mining involves multiple participants sharing their computational resources to mine cryptocurrencies.


Gwei is the unit used to define the cost of gas in Ethereum transactions.



In the cyber world, hacking refers to unauthorized access or manipulation of another computer system or network.

Hal Finney

A renowned cryptographer and programmer, Hal Finney was instrumental in the early development of Bitcoin and collaborated with its creator, Satoshi Nakamoto.

Hard Cap

The hard cap is the maximum supply limit set for a digital asset, beyond which no more of the asset can be created.

Hard Fork (Blockchain)

This is a type of protocol update that changes the rules of the blockchain network in such a way that it can make previously valid blocks invalid, and vice-versa.

Hard Fork Combinator

Specific to the Cardano blockchain, a Hard Fork Combinator is a tool that facilitates the merging of protocols post a hard fork.

Hard Peg

In foreign exchange, a hard peg is a fixed exchange rate policy that locks the value of one currency to another.

Hardware Security Module

A Hardware Security Module is a physical device that provides an extra layer of security by securely managing digital keys and encrypting data.

Hardware Wallet

This is a physical device, often resembling a USB drive, that securely stores cryptocurrency keys offline.


A hash is the result of running data through a hashing algorithm, producing a unique fixed-length string to encrypt and safeguard the original data.

Hash Function

A hash function is employed to convert arbitrary data into a fixed-length string of characters, commonly used for securing data.

Hash Power / Hash Rate

Hash power or hash rate measures the computational effort expended by a network to keep it operational.

Hashed Timelock Contract (HTLC)

HTLC is a trustless agreement between two parties that incorporates specific features to mitigate risks.

Hashgraph Consensus Mechanism

Hashgraph consensus is a modern and efficient approach for achieving network agreement, considered an evolution over traditional mechanisms.

Haskell Programming Language

Haskell is a functional, statically-typed general-purpose programming language, standardized and created in the early ’90s.

Hedge Contract

A financial instrument that serves as a form of insurance against market risks, a hedge contract aims to offset potential losses.

Hedge Fund

A pooled investment vehicle, hedge funds utilize various strategies to invest in a wide range of asset classes.

Hidden Cap

In the context of an ICO, a hidden cap is an undisclosed limit set by the project team on the total funds to be raised, aimed at leveling the playing field for small and large investors alike.

Hierarchical Deterministic Wallet (HD Wallet)

An HD Wallet employs the Hierarchical Deterministic protocol to enable the creation of multiple crypto-wallets from a single ‘master seed’ through the use of 12 mnemonic phrases.

Higher High

A term used in trading, a higher high means that the closing price of an asset is higher than its previous peak price.

Higher Low

Conversely, a higher low signifies that the closing price is higher than the previous lowest point, indicating a potential upward trend.


Originally a misspelled version of “hold,” HODL is a popular term used to describe a long-term investment strategy in cryptocurrency.

Hold On for Dear Life (HODL)

An expanded interpretation of HODL, suggesting that one should hold their cryptocurrency investments despite market volatility.

Holistic Security

A broad-based approach to security that considers multiple aspects, including physical, digital, and psychological safety measures.

Honey Badger Consensus Algorithm

Used by the Mimblewimble protocol, the Honey Badger Consensus Algorithm offers asynchronous consensus without relying on a leader.

Honey Pot

In cybersecurity, a honeypot is a decoy system designed to attract and trap cyber attackers, preventing them from accessing the actual network.

Horizontal Scalability

This refers to the ability of a system to handle increased load by adding additional instances of the same application, in contrast to vertical scalability, which improves performance by adding more power to an existing machine.

Hot Wallet

A hot wallet is a cryptocurrency wallet that is connected to the internet, making it susceptible to hacking but convenient for daily transactions.


Founded in 2013, Huobi is a Singapore-based cryptocurrency exchange that offers a variety of digital assets for trading.


An open-source blockchain project hosted by The Linux Foundation, Hyperledger aims to create an industry standard for distributed ledgers.



Immutable refers to the unchangeable nature of something, often data or records over time. In the blockchain world, once a block has been added to the blockchain, the information within it cannot be altered.

Impermanent Loss

Impermanent loss refers to the temporary shortfall in a liquidity provider’s potential earnings due to the volatility of a trading pair within a decentralized exchange.

In-the-Money / Out-of-the-Money

These are categories of options contracts. ‘In-the-money’ options are those with intrinsic value, while ‘Out-of-the-money’ options have no intrinsic value but may have potential future value depending on market fluctuations.

Infinite Approval

This is the practice of pre-authorizing smart contracts to expend an unlimited amount of a user’s tokens. While it simplifies transactions, it raises security concerns.

Infinite Mint Attack

This type of attack happens when an unauthorized individual or entity exploits vulnerabilities to produce an endless number of tokens within a given protocol, severely affecting its value and trustworthiness.


Inflation denotes the general escalation in the prices of goods and services, which subsequently erodes the buying power of money. In some crypto assets, inflation is built-in to incentivize network participation.

Initial Bounty Offering (IBO)

An IBO is a unique approach to project launching where contributors are rewarded with tokens for providing skills and services, rather than financial investment.

Initial Coin Offering (ICO)

An ICO serves as a fundraising mechanism where new cryptocurrencies are offered to raise initial capital. It’s akin to an IPO but for the blockchain-based projects.

Initial Dex Offering (IDO)

This is a variant of ICOs, but the fundraising happens directly through a decentralized exchange rather than an issuer’s website.

Initial Exchange Offering

This form of crowdfunding is where a new cryptocurrency raises initial capital by listing through a traditional centralized exchange.

Initial Farm Offering (IFO)

In the decentralized finance (DeFi) space, an IFO is a novel fundraising technique where tokens are distributed via yield farming contracts.

Initial Game Offering (IGO)

IGOs offer a chance for individuals to invest in emerging gaming projects. This often involves buying tokens that will have utility in the game’s ecosystem.

Initial NFT Offering (INO)

In INOs, sets of Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) are offered through a specialized launchpad to raise capital for digital projects.

Initial Public Offering (IPO)

An IPO is the traditional means by which a company goes public by offering its shares on the stock market for the first time.

Initial Stake Pool Offering (ISPO)

Exclusive to Cardano, an ISPO allows for a more democratic fundraising model, where users can stake their ADA tokens in return for the project’s native tokens.

Initial Token Offering (ITO)

Similar to ICOs, ITOs focus more on the utility aspect of tokens, which will serve a specific purpose within the project’s ecosystem.

Input-Output Hong Kong (IOHK)

Initially known as Input-Output Hong Kong, Input-Output Global was founded by Charles Hoskinson in 2015 to provide research and engineering services to blockchain companies.

Insider Trading

Insider trading is the illegal practice of trading shares based on non-public, material information about the stock.


Instamine refers to the rapid distribution of a cryptocurrency’s total supply, often right after its launch, which can result in reduced scarcity and value.

Instant Settlement Network Layer

This network layer enables real-time digital asset transactions globally, often employed in cross-border payments and decentralized finance.

Institutional Investor

These are organizations, like mutual funds or pension funds, that trade large volumes of securities on behalf of their clients.

Insurance Fund

This is a reserve used by exchanges to cover unexpected losses from leveraged trading, aiming to shield traders from insolvency due to forced liquidations.

Integrated Development Environment (IDE)

An IDE is software that consolidates multiple development tools into a unified interface, aiding in the seamless development of applications.

Intellectual Property (IP)

IP represents legally protectable creations of the mind, such as inventions, literary works, and symbols.

Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC)

IBC allows for the secure and efficient communication and transaction of assets between different blockchains.

Intercontinental Exchange (ICE)

Founded in the United States in 2000, ICE operates numerous global financial and commodity markets, as well as exchanges.

Interest Rates

Interest rates quantify the cost of borrowing money or the return on investment, typically expressed as an annual percentage.


An intermediary acts as a bridge between multiple parties to facilitate transactions or agreements.

Internal Transaction

In the context of Ethereum, an internal transaction is a side effect of executing smart contracts and isn’t a traditional blockchain transaction.

Internet Layer

This is the third layer in the TCP/IP model responsible for packet forwarding including routing through different nodes.

Internet Memes

Internet memes are viral content pieces like images or short videos that spread quickly online, often encapsulating humor or cultural phenomena.

Internet of Things (IoT)

IoT refers to a network of interrelated digital devices capable of collecting and transferring data without human intervention.

Internet Service Provider (ISP)

ISPs are commercial organizations that provide internet access services to consumers.


In blockchain, interoperability is the ability of different blockchains to interact and transact with each other.

InterPlanetary File System (IPFS)

IPFS is a decentralized storage system that aims to make the web faster, safer, and more open, using content-based addressing.

Intrinsic Value

This is the actual worth of an asset as opposed to its market price, often calculated using financial metrics or qualitative analysis.


Investing involves allocating money into different assets with the expectation of generating profit over time.

Investment Vehicles (Crypto-tied)

These are financial products that are directly linked to cryptocurrencies, enabling investors to diversify their portfolios.


An IOU is a documented acknowledgment of debt between two parties, often used in informal transactions.

IP Address

This is a unique identifier for devices connected to a network, facilitating the transfer of data online.

Isolated Margin

Isolated margin is a risk management strategy in trading that confines potential losses to a single trading position, rather than affecting the entire trading account.



Jager is the smallest unit of Binance Coin (BNB), named in a similar fashion to how ‘Satoshi’ is the smallest unit of Bitcoin.


Java is a versatile, object-oriented programming language commonly used for web development, Android apps, and enterprise software.


JavaScript is an advanced, high-level programming language predominantly used for enhancing interactivity and providing rich user experiences in web applications.

JOMO (Joy of Missing Out)

JOMO represents a psychological state or feeling of contentment with missing out on social activities or trends, essentially the antithesis of FOMO (Fear of Missing Out).



A keylogger is a malicious software that records keystrokes, typically used for stealing passwords and other sensitive information.

Kimchi Premium

The Kimchi premium phenomenon occurs in South Korean cryptocurrency markets, where asset prices are inflated compared to international averages due to high local demand.

Klinger Oscillator

This is a technical indicator that combines price and volume to predict price reversals in financial markets, originally designed for stock trading.

Know Your Customer (KYC)

KYC regulations require financial institutions to verify the identity of customers to prevent illegal activities like money laundering.



This is the consensus algorithm employed by the Fantom blockchain. Lachesis aims to offer improvements in scalability and transaction speed, distinguishing it from other consensus mechanisms like Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS).


In the cryptocurrency sphere, “Lambo” refers to a Lamborghini car, which has become a symbol of substantial financial gains. The term is often used by crypto enthusiasts to signify the level of success they aspire to achieve through their investments.

Large Cap

The term “Large Cap” denotes organizations or blockchain projects with a market capitalization exceeding $10 billion. These entities are often well-established and are considered less volatile compared to their small-cap counterparts.

Laser Eyes

Originating as a Twitter meme with the hashtag #LaserRayUntil100 in February 2021, the “Laser Eyes” meme has been embraced by Bitcoin supporters pushing for new all-time highs in the cryptocurrency’s price.

Law of Accelerating Returns

Developed by futurist Ray Kurzweil, the Law of Accelerating Returns postulates that the rate of technological progress accelerates exponentially over time. This has significant implications for fields like blockchain and artificial intelligence.

Layer 0

Layer 0 refers to the foundational network infrastructure that underpins a blockchain ecosystem. It includes elements like hardware, protocols, and connections that are crucial for the blockchain to function.

Layer 2

Layer 2 solutions are designed to boost the transaction throughput of a blockchain without compromising the inherent security of the Layer 1 blockchain they are built upon.

Layer-1 Blockchain

In contrast to Layer 2 solutions, Layer-1 blockchains focus on improving the base protocol itself. Modifications at this level usually involve changes to the native blockchain’s consensus algorithm or structure.


A ledger in the context of blockchain is an immutable record of all transactions that have taken place. Unlike traditional ledgers, blockchain ledgers are designed to be tamper-resistant.


Leverage involves borrowing capital from a broker to amplify the potential returns (or losses) on a trading position. This allows traders to gain exposure beyond what their existing capital would permit.

Leveraged Tokens

These are special tokens that allow a trader to take a leveraged position in a cryptocurrency asset. These tokens can magnify both gains and losses, adding an extra layer of risk and opportunity.


Libp2p is a modular and extensible peer-to-peer networking protocol. It’s open-source and serves as the backbone for many decentralized applications, enabling them to establish and maintain connections.

Light Node

A light node is a streamlined version of a full blockchain node. It doesn’t hold a complete copy of the blockchain but relies on full nodes to validate transactions and blocks.

Lightning Network

Aimed at resolving Bitcoin’s scalability issue, the Lightning Network is a second-layer solution that allows for quicker and more efficient transaction processing.

Limit Order

A limit order allows traders to specify the price at which they are willing to buy or sell an asset. Unlike market orders, limit orders are not guaranteed to execute but offer better control over the transaction price.

Limit Order/Limit Buy/Limit Sell

These are automated trading tools that execute buy or sell orders when a predetermined price target is reached. These tools are integral for traders who wish to capitalize on price movements without constantly monitoring the market.

LINK is the native token of the Chainlink network and is used to compensate node operators in the Chainlink ecosystem for retrieving and validating real-world data for smart contracts.

Liquid Market

A liquid market is characterized by the ability to easily execute large volumes of trades without significantly impacting the asset’s price. This is often facilitated by a large number of active buyers and sellers.

Liquid Proof of Stake (LPoS)

LPoS is an iteration of the traditional Proof of Stake consensus algorithm that offers greater flexibility by allowing users to stake assets without completely locking them away.

Liquid Staking

In a liquid staking environment, users can stake their tokens and concurrently utilize them within decentralized finance (DeFi) applications, providing greater financial utility.

Liquid Staking (Fantom)

This specific form of staking is native to the Fantom blockchain and allows users to earn yield on their tokens by staking them for an extended period.

Liquid Staking Derivatives

Also known as LSDs, these tokens signify ownership of staked assets within a decentralized finance protocol. They offer additional utility, as they can be traded or used in other DeFi applications.


The term refers to the act of converting assets or cryptocurrencies into cash or cash equivalents, often to cover debts or realize profits.


Liquidity signifies the ease with which an asset can be converted to cash without causing a significant impact on its price. Higher liquidity often results in lower trading costs and less price manipulation.

Liquidity Bootstrapping Pool (LBP)

An LBP is a specialized smart contract that holds tokens for facilitating trades on decentralized exchanges. It’s a strategy often used during the launch of a new token.

Liquidity Mining

This involves participants depositing cryptocurrencies into liquidity pools in exchange for rewards. These rewards are typically in the form of fees or tokens, proportional to the user’s contribution to the pool’s liquidity.

Liquidity Pool

A liquidity pool comprises tokens that are locked in a smart contract to facilitate trading on a decentralized exchange. It serves as the backend for automated market makers (AMMs).

Liquidity Provider

Individuals who contribute their own tokens to a liquidity pool are known as liquidity providers. They earn a share of the trading fees generated by the liquidity pool.

Liquidity Provider Tokens (LP Tokens)

LP tokens are issued to liquidity providers in decentralized exchanges that run on an AMM protocol. These tokens represent the provider’s share in the pool and can often be staked to earn additional rewards.


Liveness ensures that a decentralized system remains operational and continues to update its data. It also implies that no central entity has the power to halt its services.


Short for “Latest Message-Driven Greedy Heaviest Observed SubTree,” LMD GHOST is a fork-choice rule in blockchain. It helps nodes in a blockchain network to agree on the current state of the blockchain ledger.

Loan-to-value (LTV)

LTV is a metric used by financial institutions to gauge the risk associated with a loan. It is calculated as the ratio between the loan amount and the value of the collateral backing it.

Location Swap

This term describes a tokenized mechanism that allows the change of ownership for an asset without altering its other attributes.


In trading parlance, to “go long” means to buy an asset with the expectation of selling it at a higher price in the future.

Longing (Long Position)

Holding a long position means that you are buying and holding an asset with the expectation that its value will rise over time. This is the opposite of a short position, where one bets on the asset’s decline.


Lovelace is the smallest unit of ADA, the native cryptocurrency of the Cardano blockchain.

Lower High

This is a trading term to describe a situation where the asset’s price reaches a high point that is still below its previous high, often seen as a bearish indicator.


The smallest unit of Bitcoin Cash (BCH), named after Bitcoin’s creator, Satoshi Nakamoto. 1 BCH equals 100,000,000 LowSatoshi.


A high-level programming language primarily used for embedded systems. It has a simplistic syntax and is often used for scripting.


To lurk means to browse or observe a community (like an online forum) without actively participating in discussions or posts.


MACD (Moving Average Convergence Divergence)

MACD is a trend-following momentum indicator that shows the relationship between two moving averages of an asset’s price.


The term “Mainnet” describes a blockchain’s primary network, where actual transactions take place. This is in contrast to testnets, which are used for testing and development purposes.


A maker is someone who places a limit order in a trading pair, contributing to the order book and providing liquidity to the market.


MakerDAO is a decentralized organization built on the Ethereum blockchain, designed to support the stablecoin DAI through a system of smart contracts and collateral.


Malware refers to software that is specifically engineered to damage or infiltrate computer systems, networks, or servers without the user’s consent. Often deployed by malicious entities, it serves as a tool for unauthorized access and data compromise.

Man-in-the-Middle Attack (MITM)

A Man-in-the-Middle Attack is a type of cyber intrusion where an attacker intercepts communication between two entities. The goal is generally to stealthily monitor, manipulate, or steal data that is being exchanged.

Margin Call

A Margin Call occurs when the value of an investor’s account falls below a specified level known as the margin maintenance requirement. At this point, the investor must either deposit additional funds or sell assets to meet the requirement.

Margin Trading

In Margin Trading, an investor borrows capital from a brokerage firm to make trades, typically for assets like cryptocurrency. This amplifies both potential gains and losses.


A Market represents a space, either digital or physical, where commercial activities like buying and selling take place.

Market Balances

This term refers to the net amount of tokens or coins remaining after a trade has occurred on a Decentralized Exchange (DEX). It gives an overview of the current liquidity status post-transaction.

Market Capitalization/Market Cap/MCAP

Market Capitalization is the aggregate value of a cryptocurrency, calculated by multiplying its current price by its total circulating supply. This metric often serves as a relative size indicator.

Market Maker, Market Taker

In this context, a Market Maker is someone who sets a price for a buy or sell order, thus providing liquidity. A Market Taker, conversely, is the person who accepts these set orders, executing the trade.

Market Making as a Service (MMaaS)

MMaaS stands for Market Making as a Service. It’s a technological service aimed at token issuers, enabling them to customize their market-making strategies, control their liquidity, and facilitate trading of their assets.

Market Order/Market Buy/Market Sell

A Market Order involves buying or selling an asset like a cryptocurrency at the currently available best price in the market.

Market Signal

Market Signals are fluctuations that indicate potential investment opportunities, often generated by the collective actions of market participants.


Developed by IOHK, Marlowe is a user-friendly programming language designed for people who aren’t programmers. It allows the creation of smart contracts for various financial applications.


Masternodes are specialized servers operated by their owners that provide additional services such as transaction anonymization and voting rights. This concept was initially popularized by the cryptocurrency Dash.

Max Supply

Max Supply refers to the estimated maximum number of coins that will be created for a particular cryptocurrency. It provides a cap on the asset’s future circulating supply.

Maximal Extractable Value (MEV)

MEV is an indicator that quantifies how much profit a blockchain miner could theoretically make by strategically choosing which transactions to include, exclude, or reorder within newly mined blocks.

Medium of Exchange

A Medium of Exchange serves as an intermediary mechanism used to enable the buying, selling, or trading of goods among parties.

Megahashes Per Second

MH/s stands for Megahashes Per Second and is a performance metric that signifies the number of hash computations the hardware can perform in one second, measured in millions of hashes.

Meme Economy

The Meme Economy is a tongue-in-cheek online culture that discusses memes as though they were financial assets, assigning them theoretical market values.


Memecoins are cryptocurrencies that started as jokes or memes. They often promise enormous returns but generally lack intrinsic value or utility.

Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)

An MoU is a non-binding written agreement among two or more parties outlining the terms and conditions of a partnership or collaboration.


The Mempool is a node’s temporary storage area for unconfirmed transactions waiting to be included in a blockchain.

Mercenary Capital

Mercenary Capital refers to short-term investment capital that aims to exploit temporary incentive programs offered by platforms for quick profits.

Merkle Tree

A Merkle Tree is a data structure in cryptography that organizes various transaction elements in a tree format. Hashes of data blocks make up the leaf nodes, and each non-leaf node is the cryptographic hash of its child nodes.


MetaMask is a browser extension functioning as a digital wallet for managing and transferring Ethereum and Ethereum-based assets.


A Metatransaction is a transaction facilitated by a third party. The third party submits the transaction to the blockchain, thereby sparing the original signer from having to do so.


The Metaverse is an expansive digital universe that mimics real-world elements, including social interactions and economies, offering a diverse range of user experiences.

Metaverse-as-a-Service (MaaS)

Metaverse-as-a-Service offers the infrastructure and tools necessary for both technical and non-technical individuals to create their own metaverses. The service includes a range of features, including NFTs, play-to-earn models, and more.

Metcalfe’s Law

Metcalfe’s Law describes the exponential value increase of a network with each additional user. The law asserts that the utility of a network grows proportionally to the square of its users.

Micro Cap

A Micro Cap asset refers to a digital asset with an extremely low market capitalization.

MicroBitcoin (uBTC)

MicroBitcoin (uBTC) is a denomination of Bitcoin equivalent to one millionth (0.000001) of a single Bitcoin.


Micropayments are extremely small online transactions, sometimes just fractions of a cent, typically for digital goods or services.


Microtransactions are a business model that involves small online payments, usually for acquiring digital items or services within a digital environment.

Mid Cap

Mid Cap refers to assets with a market capitalization ranging between $1 billion and $10 billion.


MilliBitcoin (mBTC) is a subunit of Bitcoin, equal to one-thousandth (0.001) of a Bitcoin.

Mimetic Theory

Mimetic Theory discusses how human desires are influenced by observation and imitation, often applied in an economic context to understand consumer behavior.

Mineable and Not Mineable

Some cryptocurrencies are Mineable, meaning they allow for new coins to be created as rewards for validating transactions and creating new blocks. In contrast, Not Mineable cryptocurrencies rely on other mechanisms, such as staking, for generating new coins.


Minecraft is a video game where participants engage in a three-dimensional environment, crafting and deconstructing various types of blocks. This sandbox game allows for limitless creativity, enabling players to construct intricate structures and environments.


Miners are individuals or entities that contribute to the blockchain by participating in the mining process. This can range from large-scale operations to smaller, enthusiast-level setups. They play a vital role in validating transactions and securing the network.

Minimum Collateralization Ratio (MCR)

This refers to the smallest proportion of collateral required to secure a loan. MCR is vital for risk management, ensuring that loans are sufficiently backed by assets.

Minimum Viable Product (MVP)

An MVP is a streamlined version of a product, featuring only the essential functionalities needed to meet the requirements of early adopters and to validate the product concept.


In the context of cryptocurrency, mining is the computational process by which transactions are verified and added to a blockchain. This process also facilitates the creation of new units of certain cryptocurrencies.

Mining Algorithm

This is the rule set that a computer adheres to when creating a valid block for a blockchain. Mining algorithms are foundational to the operation and security of a blockchain network.

Mining as a Service (MaaS)

Also known as cloud mining, MaaS allows individuals to lease mining hardware capabilities from specialized companies, bypassing the need for personal, physical mining setups.

Mining Contract

Essentially synonymous with cloud mining, a mining contract refers to an agreement where one can rent or invest in a remote mining operation.

Mining Difficulty

This term describes the computational complexity involved in finding the next block for a blockchain. A higher mining difficulty indicates that it is more challenging to locate the appropriate hash for the next block.

Mining Farm

A mining farm is a collaborative effort involving multiple miners who combine their resources. This approach often results in benefits like energy efficiency and increased computational power.

Mining Pool

A mining pool is a collective where multiple miners contribute their computational power to improve the likelihood of mining a new block and receiving rewards.

Mining Reward

This is the income that a miner receives after successfully validating a block and adding it to the blockchain.

Mining Rewards

These are the financial incentives earned by miners for successfully adding a new block to a blockchain.

Mining Rig

This term refers to the specialized hardware utilized for cryptocurrency mining. These setups can range from simple, single-machine operations to intricate, large-scale configurations.


This colloquial term, also known as “Fish,” denotes someone with a relatively small investment in cryptocurrency.


Minting is the method of generating new digital tokens or coins, particularly in a proof-of-stake blockchain, and adding them to the circulating supply.

Mnemonic Phrase

This is a sequence of words used to access or recover one’s digital assets. It serves as a key to a crypto wallet.


Generally, mnemonics are memory-enhancing tools that utilize systems like letters or associations to facilitate the recollection of information. In the crypto world, see “Mnemonic Phrase.”

Mobile Wallet

This is a digital wallet application installed on a mobile device that allows for the storage and management of cryptocurrencies.

Moloch DAO

Moloch DAO can refer to several things: the original DAO framework itself, any DAO that employs this framework, or the initial Ethereum-based DAO that developed the framework for grant distribution.

Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS)

MAS is Singapore’s central bank, responsible for managing its money supply, regulating interest rates, and maintaining economic stability.

Monetary Policy

This is a strategy implemented by a central bank to control the money supply within a country, which can affect interest rates and inflation.


Money serves as a universal medium of exchange, facilitating trade and providing a mechanism for storing value.

Money Flow Index (MFI)

MFI is a technical indicator that gauges the buying or selling pressure of a financial asset by considering both its price and trading volume.

Money Laundering

This is the illicit practice of making illegally obtained money appear legitimate by obscuring its origins.

Money Market

This refers to the segment of the financial market where short-term borrowing and lending occur, usually in the form of money market funds or certificates of deposit.

Money Transfer License

Entities engaged in money transmission activities are legally required to obtain a Money Transfer License (MTL) to operate.

Money Transmitter

A money transmitter is an entity that offers services for transferring money or managing payment instruments.


A monopoly exists when a single seller controls the market for a particular good or service, eliminating competition.


In the crypto community, “moon” is used to describe a cryptocurrency whose price is experiencing a significant upward trajectory. The term is often used in phrases like “When moon?” to query when a crypto asset will skyrocket in value.

Moore’s Law

This law posits that the speed and functionality of computers will double approximately every two years, while costs decline.

Motoko Programming Language (DFINITY)

Motoko is the coding language designed for use on the Internet Computer blockchain, enabling developers to build decentralized applications.

Move (Programming Language)

Developed by the Diem Association, Move is a programming language originally created to power the Diem blockchain.


This is an emerging blockchain-based concept that incentivizes physical activity by offering cryptocurrency rewards to participants.

Moving Average (MA)

MA is a technical indicator employed in financial analysis to predict market trends based on past performance.

Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD)

MACD is a methodology in technical analysis that assists in identifying potential price movements of financial assets.

Mt. Gox

Once a prominent Bitcoin exchange, Mt. Gox ceased operations in 2014 following a significant security breach.


The term “Multi-Chain” refers to a foundational approach aimed at enhancing interoperability and decentralization among various blockchains.

Multi-Coin Wallet

Also known as a multi-chain wallet, this digital wallet can store multiple types of cryptocurrencies that belong to various blockchain networks.

Multi-level Marketing

In this business model, unsalaried sales teams earn commissions from their sales and recruitment activities, creating a hierarchical system.

Multi-Party Computation

MPC is a cryptographic technique that allows computations to be distributed among multiple parties without exposing individual data.

Multi-Party Computation as-a-Service

This business model enables consumers to lease MPC capabilities from service providers rather than building or purchasing their own systems.

Multi-Signature (Multi-Sig)

Multi-Sig is a security enhancement that mandates more than one cryptographic key to approve a transaction.


Similar to Multi-Sig, multisignature wallets necessitate multiple approvals to execute a transaction.

Mutual Credit Line

In a mutual credit system, a network-created form of money serves as the medium of exchange, facilitating multilateral trading activities.

My Story (VeChain)

My Story is a blockchain-based digital assurance platform developed by VeChain and DNV that authenticates and tracks products.


Name Wrapper

A smart contract that enables ENS (Ethereum Name Service) registered names to be transformed into NFTs (Non-Fungible Tokens), thereby increasing their range of customization options.

Negative Volume Index (NVI)

A sophisticated technical indicator that focuses on the influence of low trading volumes on asset prices. It aims to predict price movements during periods of lesser trading activity.


Refers to the collection of nodes involved in running a blockchain at any specific point in time, constituting its operational infrastructure.

Network Latency

The time delay experienced when a computer in one network attempts to interact with a computer in another. It’s a measure of how long it takes for information to travel between different points in a network.

Network-Enhanced Virtual Machine (NEVM)

Combines the salient features of both Bitcoin and Ethereum networks. NEVM aims to facilitate smart contracts with unprecedented levels of interoperability and scalability, priming them for mass adoption.


A person who is inexperienced or new to a specific industry or field. Usually, a novice with little to no background knowledge.

NFT Royalties

A mechanism by which creators can continually earn a slice of the revenue generated from the sale of their NFTs in secondary markets.

Nick Szabo

Known for the conceptualization of Bit Gold and the invention of smart contracts, Nick Szabo is a luminary in the field of blockchain and cryptography.

Nifty Gateway

Owned by the Winklevoss twins, Nifty Gateway is a platform that specializes in NFTs, making it easier for users to buy, sell, and trade them.


An individual who neither owns cryptocurrency nor believes in its future viability, typically skeptical about the long-term success of digital assets.


The fundamental building block in blockchain infrastructure, responsible for storing and processing data.


A versatile JavaScript runtime environment that functions across multiple platforms, suitable for developing a range of applications including server-side apps.


Key players in blockchain networks employing the nominated proof-of-stake (NPoS) consensus algorithm. They play a role in staking and network governance.


In the context of key storage, this refers to a setup where the private keys are under the user’s direct control, as opposed to being stored by a third-party service.

Non-fungible Assets

Assets within a collection that are unique and cannot be exchanged on a one-to-one basis, issued by a singular entity.

Non-Fungible Token (NFT)

A unique type of cryptocurrency that lacks fungibility, meaning each token is distinct and cannot be exchanged on a one-for-one basis.


An arbitrary number generated for one-time use during transaction hashing by miners.

Nonce Error

An error scenario arising from improper usage or management of a nonce, a number meant to be unique and used only once in a given system.

Notarization on Blockchain

Utilizing the inherent capabilities of blockchain technology to create timestamped artifacts, whose authorship and identity can be securely and easily verified at any time.



A decentralized platform for hosting and distributing videos, built atop the LBRY protocol and completely server-less.


Refers to transactions processed externally to the blockchain, offering advantages like reduced fees and faster execution.

Off-Chain Governance

A governance model where decisions impacting the blockchain are made outside its primary codebase, usually through informal means.

Off-Chain Transaction

Transactions that happen outside the primary blockchain, facilitated by a second-layer protocol that operates independently of the main chain.

Off-Ledger Currency

A currency minted outside the blockchain ledger but still recognized or used within a particular blockchain ecosystem.

Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC)

A branch of the U.S. Treasury responsible for overseeing national banks, federal savings associations, and other financial institutions at the federal level.

Offline Storage

The practice of keeping cryptocurrency assets in hardware or systems that are not connected to the internet, offering enhanced security.

Offshore Account

A financial account located in a foreign jurisdiction, often used for asset diversification and sometimes for tax planning.

OHM Fork

Refers to the variants created by modifying OlympusDAO’s original codebase, resulting in a range of forked products with different attributes.

On-Balance Volume (OBV)

A technical indicator that predicts price changes by analyzing the flow of trading volume, helping to gauge market sentiment.


Transactions that are permanently recorded and visible on the blockchain, shared across all participating nodes.

On-Chain Governance

A decentralized governance framework that allows network updates to be proposed, discussed, and implemented directly on the blockchain.

On-Ledger Currency

A digital currency that is both created and utilized within a specific blockchain ledger, such as Bitcoin.

Onchain Fiat

A revolutionary class of stablecoins, fully authorized and regulated, facilitating smooth transitions between traditional financial systems and web3 architectures.

One Cancels the Other Order (OCO)

A trading strategy involving two simultaneous cryptocurrency orders, with a provision that executing one order will automatically cancel the other.

Online Storage

The method of storing cryptocurrencies in hardware or systems that are connected to the internet, offering convenience but less security compared to offline storage.

Ontorand Consensus Engine (Ontology)

The underlying consensus mechanism in the Ontology blockchain, known as VBFT, which facilitates network agreement.

Open Source

A philosophy and practice advocating for the free sharing of information and collaborative development for the common good.


Refers either to the initial and final trading prices of a cryptocurrency within a specific time period or to the software design principle of extendability.


A peer-to-peer platform designed for trading NFTs, operating in a decentralized manner.

Opera Mainnet (Fantom)

A public, permissionless infrastructure built on the Fantom framework, allowing community participation in staking and governance.

Operating System (OS)

Software that serves as an intermediary between computer hardware and the computer user, functioning as a resource manager.

Optimistic Oracle

A data oracle employing a dispute resolution process to ensure accurate data feeds, in contrast to price-feed oracles which rely on node consistency for on-chain data.

Optimistic Rollup

A Layer-2 scaling solution that utilizes off-chain computation for transaction recording, while maintaining trustless operations via dispute mechanisms.


A financial contract that grants the holder the choice, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset at a predetermined price.

Options Market

A specialized market where options contracts are traded, allowing participants to buy or sell assets at agreed-upon prices and timelines.

Oracle Manipulation

A security threat where the data provided by an oracle smart contract is tampered with, usually by malicious actors.


Entities or agents that supply and validate external information for smart contracts, acting as a bridge between blockchain networks and the real world.

Order Book

A repository of essential data regarding asset trading, such as buy and sell orders, that aids in market analysis.


A valid blockchain block that, for various reasons, is not part of the primary blockchain.

Orphaned Block

A block in the blockchain whose parent block is either missing or unknown, thus not being part of the longest chain.

Ouroboros Praos

An evolved version of Ouroboros Classic, Ouroboros Praos is a proof-of-stake consensus algorithm developed by IOHK. It aims to improve scalability and security in decentralized networks.

Over-Collateralization (OC)

In financial transactions, Over-Collateralization (OC) involves providing collateral valued higher than the loan or debt taken. This is done to minimize risk in the event of a default.

Over-the-Counter (OTC)

This term designates a kind of financial transaction that is conducted outside the confines of formal exchanges. These are often private, peer-to-peer transactions.

Over-the-Counter (OTC) Trading

In this trading mechanism, assets such as cryptocurrencies or securities are exchanged through a decentralized broker-dealer network. This occurs instead of a centralized exchange.


Describes a scenario where a particular cryptocurrency has seen a prolonged period of buying, resulting in an increase in its price. This is often an indicator that the asset may be overvalued.


Opposite to Overbought, Oversold is a condition where a cryptocurrency has experienced a prolonged period of selling, leading to a decline in its price. This is commonly considered a sign that the asset may be undervalued.


P2P Bridge

In decentralized exchanges, a P2P bridge enables users to directly swap the same cryptocurrency across two different blockchain protocols, eliminating the need for a middleman.


A Peer-to-Peer Decentralized Exchange (P2P DEX) is a blockchain-based platform facilitating P2P trading, allowing for direct transactions between users without intermediaries.

P2P Trading

In the realm of cryptocurrencies, Peer-to-Peer (P2P) trading signifies decentralized transactions between two users. These transactions occur directly, bypassing any centralized third-party involvement.


Denotes the relationship between two cryptocurrencies that can be traded against each other, e.g., the BTC/ETH trading pair.

Paper Trading

A risk-free form of simulated trading where transactions are executed in a virtual environment without using actual capital.

Paper Wallet

A tangible document that securely stores your private key or seed phrase, serving as a physical medium for crypto storage.


In the Polkadot network, Parachains are specialized blockchains that operate concurrently, allowing for multiple transactions and operations to be executed in parallel.

Participation Node

In the Algorand blockchain, participation nodes are specialized nodes that assist in the functioning of the Pure Proof of Stake (PPoS) consensus mechanism.

Passive Income

Income generated from investments that require little to no ongoing active involvement from the investor.

Password Manager

Software that acts as a secure vault for storing various passwords needed to access online services and applications.

Paul Le Roux

A criminal mastermind speculated by some to possibly be the mysterious founder of Bitcoin, known as Satoshi Nakamoto.


The party in a transaction that is designated to receive payment for goods or services.

Peer-to-Peer (P2P)

A decentralized form of interaction where individual parties can communicate or transact directly with each other in a distributed network.

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Lending

Refers to the practice of lending crypto-assets in a decentralized manner, without the need for a financial intermediary. Such loans are usually backed by collateral.


In financial terms, a peg denotes a fixed exchange rate between two different assets.

Pegged Currency

A form of stablecoin whose value is attached or “pegged” to a real-world asset like fiat currency, to maintain stability.

Permissioned Ledger

A type of blockchain ledger that imposes restrictions on who can access it, offering permission-based access.


Describes systems, often blockchain-based, where there is no governing body regulating who can participate or how they can participate.

Perpetual Contracts

These are derivatives similar to futures contracts but without a set expiration date, allowing for continuous trading.


A deceitful technique where attackers impersonate a trustworthy entity to extract sensitive information such as passwords or financial details from victims.

Phone Phishing

Also known as vishing, this form of scam involves making fraudulent phone calls to trick people into disclosing personal or financial information.

Physical Bitcoins

Tokens that represent Bitcoin value but are in physical form, often featuring elaborate designs and embedded keys.


In the context of CoinMarketCap, the term refers to the underlying blockchain for various tokens. It can also refer to exchanges where cryptocurrencies are traded.

Play-to-Earn (Play2Earn)

A novel business model in the world of online gaming that monetizes player contributions to the game’s universe, allowing them to earn financial rewards.

Player Payout

An automated system that immediately disburses rewards to online gaming participants after the conclusion of a tournament.

Plutus (Cardano)

The designated smart contract programming language used within the Cardano blockchain ecosystem.

Politeia (Decred)

A governance platform within the Decred ecosystem that enables stakeholders to propose, monitor, and debate new features or changes.

Ponzi Scheme

A fraudulent financial scheme where returns are paid to earlier investors using the capital of new investors, rather than from profit generated by the operation.


A portfolio is a diversified collection of crypto assets, including cryptocurrencies and other digital assets, managed by individuals or financial organizations such as hedge funds and investment companies.

Portfolio Tracking

This refers to the ongoing monitoring of the performance and value of your financial assets, which can include everything from stocks and commodities to mutual funds, ETFs, and even cryptocurrencies and NFTs.

Position Size

In trading, position size is crucial for both risk management and profit maximization. It dictates the amount of an asset that a trader chooses to buy or sell, and variations in position size can have a direct impact on potential gains or losses.


This is the act of generating new cryptocurrency coins after the public launch but before public mining is available. This is usually done retroactively.


Pre-IDO signifies the token offerings that occur prior to the official Initial DEX (Decentralized Exchange) Offering, usually to select investors or under specific conditions.


In this scenario, a certain portion or all of a cryptocurrency’s initial supply is created before the public launch.


This is a phase where a cryptocurrency is offered for sale to a particular group of investors before it becomes publicly available.

Prediction Market

These are markets where people can trade on the outcome of future events. It serves as a measure of the crowd’s confidence about a certain event taking place in the future.

Price Impact

Price Impact refers to the gap between the market price of an asset and the estimated price that could be affected by the size of the trade.

Private Blockchain

In a private blockchain, a single entity has control and authority over the entire blockchain network, making it more centralized than public blockchains.

Private Key/Secret Key

This is a cryptographic code generated during the asymmetric encryption process. It is paired with a public key and is essential for decrypting data that has been encrypted with the corresponding public key.

Procedural Programming

This is a programming paradigm that involves writing a list of instructions for the computer to execute in a specific sequence to accomplish a task.

Profit and Loss (P&L) Statement

A P&L statement is a financial document that summarizes the revenues, costs, and expenses incurred during a specific period, often used for business analysis.


This term indicates the capability of a system or object to execute instructions.

Programmable Privacy

Programmable privacy allows users and developers of decentralized applications (dApps) to tailor privacy settings according to their needs, offering a more flexible approach to data protection.

Proof Market

This is a decentralized marketplace designed for the buying and selling of cryptographic proofs. These proofs can verify ownership, authenticate a transaction, or confirm the validity of specific data or computational results.

Proof of Attendance Protocol (POAP)

POAP leverages the ERC-721 NFT protocol on Ethereum to issue unique, non-fungible identifiers that are exclusive to individuals and only accessible by them.

Proof of Reserves (PoR)

This is a cryptographic method used to prove ownership of digital assets, typically utilized by financial institutions or exchanges.

Proof of Stake Authority (PoSA)

A hybrid consensus algorithm combining elements of Proof-of-Stake and Proof-of-Authority, aimed at providing more efficient and secure network validation.

Proof-of-Authority (PoA)

This consensus mechanism relies on the reputation and identity of validators to quickly confirm transactions on a blockchain.


In this mechanism, tokens are intentionally “burned” or sent to an unspendable address as a way to achieve certain network functionalities or as an anti-fraud measure.

Proof-of-Burn (PoB)

This is an environmentally-friendly consensus mechanism that aims to improve blockchain efficiency by verifying that tokens were destroyed or “burned” by sending them to an unrecoverable address.

Proof-of-Developer (PoD)

This refers to any evidence that verifies the existence of a legitimate software developer behind a cryptocurrency, aiming to avoid scams.


A system where charitable donations are integrated into the functionality of a blockchain, often to incentivize certain actions or behaviors.

Proof-of-History (PoH)

A novel concept where nodes in the blockchain have internal clocks that validate the timing of events. This is achieved through the use of a verifiable delay function (VDF), improving blockchain speed and scalability.

Proof-of-Immutability (PoIM)

A unique blockchain architecture designed to ensure that data remains unchanged and secure within a distributed network, without requiring the data to be shared among nodes.

Proof-of-Replication (PoRep)

This is a method used by storage miners to prove that they are holding a unique copy of a specific piece of data.


A concept that allows an individual to prove they are allocating a specific amount of storage space over a given period, often used in decentralized storage solutions.

Proof-of-Stake (PoS)

A popular blockchain consensus mechanism designed to secure a network through validators who hold and lock up a certain amount of cryptocurrency.

Proof-of-Time (PoT)

A consensus algorithm that selects validators based on both a scoring system and a stake, ensuring decentralized, secure, and environmentally-friendly network operations.

Proof-of-Validation (PoV)

A special form of Proof-of-Stake where consensus is reached through staked validator nodes, often with additional verification layers for added security.

Proof-of-Work (PoW)

This is a consensus mechanism that requires nodes to solve complex mathematical problems, thus validating transactions and creating new blocks.


Protocols establish the set of rules and guidelines for interaction on a network, covering aspects like transaction validation and consensus mechanisms.

Protocol Layer

This layer in a blockchain network contains the rules and algorithms that dictate how the network operates, including how consensus is reached and how new blocks are created.


A term for writing under a fictitious name, used often in the context of the anonymous creator of Bitcoin, “Satoshi Nakamoto.”

Public Address

This is the hashed form of a public key, serving as an address to which others can send payments.

Public Blockchain

A blockchain network that is open to anyone who wishes to participate, opposite to a private blockchain.

Public Key

A cryptographic key used for encrypting data into ciphertext, which can only be decrypted by someone with the corresponding private key.

Public Sale

The stage in an Initial Coin Offering (ICO) where tokens are offered to the general public, usually at a discounted price prior to listing on exchanges.

Public-Key Cryptography

A type of cryptography involving two keys: a public key for encryption and a private key for decryption.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)

An infrastructure involving various components for generating, managing, and storing digital certificates and public-key encryptions.

Pump and Dump (P&D) Scheme

An illegal practice involving the artificial inflation of a cryptocurrency’s price through false or misleading statements, typically to sell at a profit.

Pure Proof of Stake (PPoS)

An Algorand-specific consensus algorithm that relies on the consistent staking of validators for random selection.

Put Option

A financial contract that gives the holder the right but not the obligation to sell an underlying asset at a predetermined price within a specified timeframe.

Pyramid Scheme

A fraudulent scheme structured like a pyramid, where returns for earlier investors are paid through the capital of new investors.


QR Code

QR Codes serve as machine-readable labels that encode information into a graphical pattern of black-and-white squares.

Quant Zone (FTX Exchange)

This tool available on FTX exchange allows users to create and disseminate trading strategies.

Quantum Bit (Qubit)

A qubit, short for “Quantum Bit,” is a unit used for measuring quantum information.

Quantum Computing

Utilizes principles of quantum mechanics to perform calculations at a speed and efficiency unattainable by traditional computing methods.

Quasar Smart Contract (OMG Foundation)

Developed by the OMG Network, Quasar Smart Contracts are engineered to tackle issues related to layer-2 blockchain scaling.

Quorum (Governance)

In governance contexts, a quorum denotes the smallest number of members required to validate the proceedings of a meeting.


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

RFID technology uses radio waves for passive identification of tagged objects or individuals.


Exiting abruptly from a DAO by withdrawing one’s stake and a proportional part of the DAO’s assets, thereby ceasing participation.

Raiden Network

Designed for the Ethereum blockchain, this off-chain scaling solution aims for rapid, low-cost, and scalable transactions, similar to Bitcoin’s Lightning Network.


Indicates a cryptocurrency’s position in the market based on its market capitalization.


Malicious software that either locks or encrypts a victim’s files, demanding payment for their release.


The act of readjusting an asset portfolio’s composition to sustain the desired risk level and asset allocation.


Tokens engineered to automatically adapt their circulating supply according to price movement.

Recovery Seed

A sequence of randomly generated words used as a cryptographic security code for recovering digital assets.


The programming method where a function invokes itself, either directly or indirectly, forming a loop.


Refers to elements that exceed what is fundamentally needed for standard operation.

Regenerative Economy

An economic model that enriches both the environment and societal well-being by recycling resources.

Regenerative Finance (ReFi)

A financial model designed to renew its own resource capabilities over time.


Crypto enthusiasts committed to blockchain projects with positive environmental impacts, similar to “degens” but with a focus on sustainability.

Regional/Local/Community Currencies

Currency systems that are limited by geography or community membership, designed for local exchange.


The imposition of rules or standards controlling an entity or activity.

Regulatory Compliance

Mandatory rules and guidelines that companies or industries are obligated to follow.


The act of using client-collateralized assets for the financial benefit of banks or brokers.


A colloquial term signifying severe financial losses, often used in trading contexts.

Relative Strength Index (RSI)

A momentum oscillator in technical analysis measuring the rate and magnitude of asset price changes.

Relay Chain

The primary chain in the Polkadot network that functions as its backbone.

Relay Nodes

Nodes that ensure secure and authentic communication between block-producing nodes and the blockchain.

Renewable Energy

Energy generated from resources that are naturally replenished, like solar or wind power.

Repair Miners

A hypothetical type of node in the Filecoin network aimed at fixing issues within the system.

Replay Attack

A type of network security threat where unauthorized interception and retransmission of data occurs between a sender and receiver.

Replicated Ledger

A duplicated ledger distributed to all network participants in a cryptocurrency environment.

Replicated Security (RS)

An emerging tech in the Cosmos network allowing blockchains to share economic security via the Inter-Blockchain Communication protocol (IBC).

Resistance (Line/Level)

The maximum price point an asset reaches during a specified period, often serving as a barrier to further price increase.


An algorithm, mostly in proof-of-work blockchains like Bitcoin, that adjusts the difficulty of mining tasks.

Revenue Participation Tokens

A dual-token system featuring one token for participation and another for receiving payouts.

Reverse ICO

An established company employs ICOs to decentralize its structure, issuing tokens in the process.

Reverse Indicator

An individual notorious for inaccurate crypto price predictions, whose actions serve as a counter-signal.

Ring CT (Confidential Transactions)

The technology that enables transaction amounts to remain concealed in the Monero blockchain.

Ring Miners

Participants in the Loopring protocol who manage order rings to complete trades on behalf of all involved entities.

Ring Signature

A digital signature technique that conceals the identities of transaction parties, offering an additional layer of privacy.


A strategic outline showcasing the developmental trajectory and future goals of a product.

Roger Ver

Commonly known as “Bitcoin Jesus,” Roger Ver is an outspoken advocate for Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash.

ROI (Return on Investment)

ROI is a metric that quantifies the profitability of an investment relative to its cost. It is calculated by taking the net gain from the investment and dividing it by the initial capital cost. It’s expressed as a percentage to easily compare the profitability of various investment options.

Roth IRA

A Roth IRA is a tax-advantaged retirement account that’s most beneficial if you anticipate a higher tax rate during your retirement years compared to your current tax rate. It allows for tax-free withdrawals during retirement.

Rough Consensus

This is a decision-making process that aims for agreement among a majority but does not require complete unanimity. It’s often employed in decentralized networks and open-source communities.

Ruby (Programming Language)

Ruby is designed to prioritize programmer happiness and ease of use. Known for its straightforward syntax and readability, Ruby is used in various applications but is most famous for the Ruby on Rails web framework.

Rug Pull

A rug pull refers to a deceptive practice where the developers of a blockchain project abandon it, absconding with investor funds, usually after an initial coin offering (ICO).

Rust (Programming Language)

Rust is a versatile programming language with applications in systems-level projects. It’s known for its emphasis on safety and performance, offering syntactical similarities to C++.

Ryuk Ransomware

First identified in 2018, Ryuk Ransomware is a type of malicious software designed to encrypt a victim’s files and demand a ransom for their release.


S&P 500 (Standard and Poor’s 500)

The S&P 500 is a stock market index that serves as a performance benchmark for the U.S. equity market. It comprises 500 of the largest public companies in the U.S. and is considered indicative of the health of the American economy.

Satoshi (SATS)

The smallest unit of a Bitcoin, a Satoshi is equal to 0.00000001 BTC. It’s named after the pseudonymous creator(s) of Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto.

Satoshi Nakamoto

The pseudonymous person or group responsible for the creation of Bitcoin. The true identity remains unknown, adding an element of mystique to the foundational cryptocurrency.

Scaling Problem

In blockchain terms, the scaling problem refers to the limitations in transaction throughput and efficiency. As networks grow, maintaining quick and affordable transactions becomes challenging.

Scaling Solution

A method designed to overcome the inherent limitations of a blockchain network, enhancing its capacity and transaction speed. Examples include Layer 2 solutions like Lightning Network.


A fraudulent or deceptive operation aimed at taking money or assets from individuals, often found in the crypto space as Ponzi schemes, rug pulls, etc.


A type of cryptocurrency that is created with the sole intention of defrauding investors. These coins offer no real utility and are often pumped and dumped by their creators.


An individual who engages in deceitful activities to defraud people of their money or assets.

Scholarship/Scholar (Axie Infinity)

In the Axie Infinity game universe, a scholarship refers to an arrangement where more established players (“managers”) lend Axies to newer players (“scholars”) and share the in-game earnings.


In computing, a script is a sequence of instructions written in a scripting language that automates tasks.

Scripting Programming Language

A type of programming language that bypasses the need for compilation, executing commands one by one, commonly used for automating tasks and web development.


An alternative to SHA-256, Scrypt is a proof-of-work algorithm that emphasizes memory usage over computational power, making it less conducive to ASIC-based mining and more accessible.

Second-Layer Solutions

These are protocols built atop a base blockchain to augment its scalability and efficiency, specifically for micro-transactions. Examples include Lightning Network, Plasma, and TrueBit.

Secondary Market

The marketplace where investors trade previously owned assets or securities among themselves, distinct from primary markets where new securities are issued.

Secure Asset Fund for Users (SAFU)

An emergency insurance fund set up by Binance to cover potential system failures or breaches, aimed at protecting user assets.

Secure Element

A specialized hardware chip designed to run a limited set of secure applications, often used in cryptographic operations and secure data storage.

Secure Multi-Party Computation (sMPC)

A cryptographic technique enabling multiple parties to compute a function over their inputs while keeping those inputs confidential.

Secure Proof of Stake (SPoS)

An evolved version of the traditional Proof of Stake (PoS) consensus mechanism, SPoS aims to enhance the security features of blockchain networks.

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

A U.S. federal agency responsible for regulating the securities industry and enforcing federal securities laws.


In financial terms, a security is a tradeable asset that carries some form of financial value, often represented by a stock, bond, or option.

Security Token

Digital equivalents of traditional securities, security tokens represent ownership in real-world assets and are subject to federal laws.

Security Token Offering (STO)

An STO is the issuance and sale of digital tokens that represent ownership in underlying assets and are subject to regulatory oversight.

Seed Funding

The initial round of capital for a startup, provided by investors in exchange for equity shares in the company.

Seed Phrase

The initial set of words or phrases used to generate deterministic keys for a cryptocurrency wallet.

Segregated Witness (SegWit)

An upgrade to the Bitcoin protocol that fixes the transaction malleability issue and increases block size limit, thereby enhancing scalability.

Selfish Mining

A strategy where a miner finds a new block but deliberately withholds it, attempting to mine additional blocks to gain an advantage.

Sell Wall

Occurs when a large sell limit order is placed on an asset at a specific price point, often acting as a barrier that the asset must overcome to increase in price.

Semantic Web

An extension of the current web, the Semantic Web aims to make data across the internet machine-readable, enabling more complex tasks to be automated.

Series B Funding

The second major round of business financing, Series B is for companies ready to scale their operations.


In decentralized exchanges, settlement refers to the completion of a trade, when assets are transferred between buyer and seller.

Settlement Layer

This layer serves as the foundational level for an ecosystem, recording the definitive or final state of transactions.


A cryptographic algorithm that produces a fixed-size (256-bit) hash value, commonly used in Bitcoin’s proof-of-work mechanism.

Shamir’s Secret Sharing

A cryptographic method for splitting sensitive data (like a private key) into multiple parts, making it secure against single-point failures.

Shanghai Upgrade

This upgrade allows Ethereum users to unstake and retrieve their ETH holdings, providing liquidity and flexibility.


A sub-section of a blockchain network, shards contain a portion of the network’s transactional data and are processed independently to increase throughput.

Shard Chain

Specific to cryptocurrency, shard chains reduce network congestion and enhance scalability through the creation of new, parallel chains.


A scalability technique that partitions a blockchain into multiple smaller, more manageable pieces, called shards, allowing transactions to be processed in parallel.

Shelley Phase

Named after poet Percy Shelley, this is the second developmental stage of the Cardano blockchain focusing on decentralization.

Shiba Inu Token (SHIB)

The Shiba Inu token, commonly known as SHIB, is a meme-inspired cryptocurrency running on the Ethereum blockchain. It is decentralized and largely community-driven.

Shielded Address

This is a unique address generated for carrying out shielded transactions. Within a blockchain network, it enables the privacy-oriented transmission of payment information.

Shielded Transaction

This refers to a payment operation between two shielded addresses. It ensures privacy by concealing the involved details like sender, receiver, and amount.


This term is used to describe the enthusiastic promotion of a specific cryptocurrency or an Initial Coin Offering (ICO).


Refers to a cryptocurrency that has no discernible value proposition or utility. It is often considered worthless or insignificant.

SHO (Strong Holder Offering)

In an SHO, potential investors are evaluated and selected based on their history of on-chain activities and other specialized data. It’s a mechanism used to raise funds.


Shorting is a trading strategy where a trader borrows an asset to sell it, anticipating a future decline in its price. The trader aims to buy it back at a lower price later, pocketing the difference.

Short Squeeze

This is a rare market scenario where a coin’s price ascends rapidly, compelling traders who were betting against it to buy it to minimize their losses.

Side Channel Attack

This is a hacking technique exploiting unintentional signals or “tells” emitted by a computer system, which indirectly leak valuable information.


A sidechain functions as an independent blockchain but is linked to a parent blockchain through a dual-peg mechanism.


Signals refer to a directive to either purchase or dispose of an asset, usually based on analytical data.

Silk Road

Silk Road was a black market platform on the dark web. It has been closed down by law enforcement agencies.


This scam circumvents two-factor authentication security measures by tricking mobile carriers into switching the victim’s phone number to a new SIM card.

Simple Agreement for Future Token (SAFT)

A SAFT is a legal agreement that designates ownership rights in future tokens. It is typically treated as a financial security and is subject to regulation.

Simple Ledger Protocol (SLP)

SLP is a tokenization system that operates atop the Bitcoin Cash blockchain, allowing users to mint custom tokens.

Simplified Payment Verification (SPV)

SPV is a streamlined method for verifying blockchain transactions without requiring a full node.


Built on the Sia blockchain, Skynet serves as a decentralized platform for content storage.


In Proof of Stake networks, slashing serves as a penalty imposed on validators to enforce accountability.


Slippage occurs when an asset has to be bought or sold at a price different from the initial set price, usually due to market fluctuations.

Slot (Cardano)

In Cardano‘s blockchain, a Slot is the smallest time unit for which actions are organized.

Smart Contract

A smart contract is a self-executing contract coded onto a blockchain, designed to eliminate the need for intermediaries.

Smart Contract Audit

This refers to a rigorous security assessment carried out by cybersecurity experts to identify vulnerabilities in a smart contract’s code.

Smart Home

Smart homes utilize technology to automate and remotely control household systems such as lighting, temperature, and security.

Smart Money

Refers to capital invested by entities or individuals with significant financial acumen and experience, often seeking out high-return opportunities.

Smart Token

Unlike regular tokens, smart tokens carry both value and the requisite information to perform a transaction.

Smart Treasury (Balancer)

In the decentralized finance (DeFi) sector, a smart treasury is used for automatic buyback and management of a project’s tokens.


In blockchain, a snapshot captures the state of the blockchain at a particular block height for record-keeping or fork preparation.

Social Engineering

This is the practice of manipulating individuals to divulge confidential information or perform certain actions.

Soft Cap

The soft cap is the minimum fundraising goal that an ICO aims to achieve.

Soft Fork (Blockchain)

A soft fork is a backwards-compatible update to a blockchain protocol, rendering only some past transactions invalid.

Soft Peg

This is an exchange rate regime where a currency’s value is somewhat stabilized against a reserve currency, usually within a specific range.

Software Library

A software library is a curated set of code resources that developers can tap into while creating other programs.

Software Stack

This term refers to a complete set of software components that come together to enable a specific functionality.

Software Wallet

Also known as a digital wallet, a software wallet is an app that allows for the secure storage and management of cryptocurrencies.

Solana Virtual Machine (SVM)

SVM is the engine that powers Solana‘s high-throughput transaction capabilities.


This is the programming language predominantly used for writing smart contracts on the Ethereum platform.

Source Code

Source code is the original, human-readable text that is compiled to produce a working program or application.


Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs) are investment groups established to take a company public, sidestepping the traditional Initial Public Offering (IPO) process.

Spear Phishing

Spear phishing is a targeted cyber-attack, leveraging personalized information to trick the recipient into exposing sensitive data.

Speculative Investment

These are investments with a high potential for return but also carrying a significant risk of loss.

Spoon (Blockchain)

In blockchain terminology, a hard spoon is a meta-protocol layer residing above a parent blockchain.


A spot contract involves the immediate buying or selling of a cryptocurrency, settled instantly at the current market price.

Spot Market

This is a financial market for immediate transactions, contrasting futures markets where settlement is deferred.

Spot Trading

Spot trading refers to the act of buying or selling financial instruments for instant delivery and payment.


Spyware is malicious software that monitors and logs user activity on electronic devices.


Stablecoins are digital currencies designed to have low volatility, often being pegged to other assets like gold or fiat currencies.

Stacking Sats

This is the habit of regularly accumulating small fractions of Bitcoin, known as satoshis.


Stagflation is an economic condition characterized by stagnant economic growth coupled with rising inflation rates.


In a Proof-of-Stake (PoS) system, staking involves allocating your tokens to serve as collateral, allowing you to act as a validator. In return, you receive rewards for contributing to the network’s stability and security.

Staking Pool

Pooling staking resources together improves the collective chances of validating new blocks and receiving rewards. Staking pools amplify network verification power.

Stale Block

A stale block is a successfully mined block that fails to make it into the longest blockchain because another block at the same height was quicker to join the chain.

State Channel

State channels are second-layer solutions designed to lessen the load on the blockchain by taking transactions off-chain. Participants can batch multiple transactions before finally committing them to the main chain.

Stochastic Oscillator

This is a commonly used technical indicator that helps to identify potential overbought or oversold conditions in a traded security, based on its historical price behavior.

Stock-to-Flow Ratio

The stock-to-flow ratio is a measure of scarcity, often applied to precious metals and cryptocurrencies. It relates the current stock of a commodity to its production rate.

Stop-Loss Order

Stop-loss orders are set by traders to specify the lowest price at which they are willing to sell an asset. When this predetermined price is reached, an automatic sell order is triggered.

Storage (Decentralized)

In decentralized storage, files are fragmented, encrypted, and distributed across multiple nodes in a distributed network, often leveraging blockchain technology.

Storage Miners

Storage miners contribute disk space to a network, helping nodes achieve consensus and validate transactions in certain blockchain-based storage solutions.

Storage Node

Within the Storj decentralized cloud storage network, storage nodes serve as the primary building blocks.

Store of Value

A store of value is something that retains its worth over time, allowing it to be saved, retrieved, and traded later without depreciating.


Stroop is the smallest unit of Lumen (XLM), a unit akin to Bitcoin’s Satoshi.

Subgraph Manifest

This component of Subgraph contains critical information about the data sources, templates, and other elements of a subgraph.


A subnet is a subset of a larger network, grouping nodes based on certain commonalities, often for organizational or security purposes.


Developed by Parity Technologies, Substrate is a framework for building web applications.

Succinct Proofs of Random Access (SPoRA)

Used in the Arweave decentralized network, SPoRA is a consensus algorithm for verifying transactions and validating blocks.


A supercomputer is an extremely powerful computing machine, characterized by its high-speed data processing capabilities.

Supply and Demand

These are economic indicators representing the market’s willingness to buy or sell goods and services. They are crucial for price determination.

Supply Chain

A supply chain comprises all the stages that a product or service goes through before it reaches the end consumer.

Supply Chain Attack

This kind of attack targets third-party suppliers connected to bigger corporations or governments to infiltrate and gather valuable data.

Support Level

In cryptocurrency trading, a support level is a price level where a downtrend could be expected to pause, owing to a concentration of demand.

Surge (Ethereum)

The Ethereum Surge refers to a development phase that incorporates various upgrades to the network, most notably, sharding.


A swarm refers to a collective of peers engaged in sharing the same torrent.

Swing Failure Pattern (SFP)

An SFP is an indicator used to identify early signs of trend reversal by highlighting weaknesses in the existing trend.

Swing Trading

This trading technique aims at capitalizing on short to medium-term price fluctuations across different asset classes, typically over days or weeks.

Sybil Attack

In a Sybil Attack, multiple fake nodes or IDs are created to disrupt the balance of power within a network.


The symbol is the ticker representation of a cryptocurrency, like BTC for Bitcoin.

Symmetric Key Cryptography

This cryptography type employs a single key for both encryption and decryption of data.

Synthetic Asset

Synthetic assets, or “synths,” are hybrid commodities combining features of cryptocurrencies and traditional derivatives.


T-Address (Zcash)

For Zcash, a privacy-centric cryptocurrency, T-addresses are used when transactions require transparency.


Taint represents the proportion of cryptocurrency in a wallet that can be linked back to another account.

Take Profit

This is an order to sell a cryptocurrency at a predetermined price level to secure gains once the trade has turned profitable.

Tamper-Proof Ledger

A blockchain or similar distributed ledger that is resistant to unauthorized changes or hacking attempts can be termed as tamper-proof.


IOTA’s Tangle is a blockchain alternative, using directed acyclic graphs for more efficient, scalable transactions.


Taproot is a soft fork upgrade for Bitcoin, focused on improving both transactional privacy and efficiency.

Tardigrade (Storj)

Tardigrade is the cloud storage service offered by Storj, a decentralized storage solution.

Technical Analysis/Trend Analysis (TA)

TA is a trading evaluation method that uses statistical tools and charts to study market behavior and drive investment decisions.

Technical Indicators

These are mathematical calculations or pattern recognitions used in technical analysis to predict future price movements.


Tendermint is a byzantine fault-tolerant consensus algorithm that offers a secure and consistent application runtime.

Terahashes Per Second

Measured in Th/s, this unit gauges the processing power of a computer or mining machine.


This is a blockchain sandbox environment utilized for development and testing.

The Barbell Strategy

This investment strategy focuses on dividing assets between high-risk and no-risk categories, avoiding the mid-risk zone.

The Cantillon Effect

Conceived by Richard Cantillon, this effect describes how changes in the money supply can impact relative prices in an economy.


The DAO stands for Decentralized Autonomous Organization and is a pioneer in this form of organizational structure. It was established in April 2016 by a group of developers and is designed to be self-governing and without a centralized authority.

The Merge (Ethereum 2.0)

This term refers to the anticipated upgrade to the Ethereum network, scheduled to integrate the mainnet with the Beacon Chain. This will shift Ethereum from a proof-of-work to a proof-of-stake consensus algorithm.

Think Long Term (TLT)

The Think Long Term (TLT) mindset prioritizes investments and strategies that will yield returns over an extended period, often ranging from several months to years.

This Is Gentlemen

Originating from a grammatical mistake for “This is it, gentlemen,” this phrase has been adopted in the crypto community as an introduction for good news or promising updates.


Throughput measures the number of operations that can be executed within a specified timeframe, often used to evaluate the efficiency of systems and networks.


In the context of cryptocurrencies, a ticker is a unique shorthand used to identify them. It is related but not identical to the ticker symbol.

Ticker Symbol

This is a unique set of alphabets assigned to stocks or cryptocurrencies, making it easier to identify them on trading platforms and exchanges.

Time-Weighted Automated Market Maker (TWAMM)

TWAMM aims to aid traders in executing sizable orders with minimal price slippage and lower gas fees, all without substantially affecting the asset’s price.

Time-weighted Average Price (TWAP)

TWAP is a trading metric that calculates the weighted average price of an asset over a specific time period, reflecting its volatility.


This refers to a predefined condition that requires a blockchain transaction to be processed only at a specific time or upon reaching a particular block.


This is a digital marker indicating the exact time at which a particular blockchain transaction was executed or added to the ledger.


Unlike a linear chain of blocks in many blockchains, a tipset is a group of blocks that collectively make up the blockchain’s structure.


A token is a digital asset designed to provide utility within a broader crypto-economic ecosystem, usually by serving a specific function or granting access to services.

Token Economy

This is an ecosystem where blockchain and tokens eliminate the need for middlemen, enabling goods and services to be traded directly.

Token Generation Event (TGE)

A TGE marks the moment a new cryptocurrency token is created and issued, often as part of an initial coin offering (ICO) or other fundraising event.

Token Issuance

The act of generating new tokens and adding them to a cryptocurrency’s existing supply.

Token Lockup

This is a period during which new tokens are restricted from being traded or sold, often to stabilize prices post-launch.

Token Migration

This is the act of moving tokens from one blockchain to another, usually due to an upgrade or a shift to a more efficient blockchain.

Token Sale

In crypto, a token sale typically refers to the initial distribution of a new token to a select group of investors before it becomes publicly available.

Token Standard

Currently, the most widespread token standard is Ethereum’s ERC (Ethereum Request for Comment), which defines a set of rules and protocols for issuing new tokens.

Token Swap

This involves the direct exchange of one type of cryptocurrency token for another, either through a specialized exchange service or as part of a token migration.


This process transforms real-world assets into digital tokens, allowing for fractional ownership and easier transferability.

Tokenized Carbon Credits

These are digital tokens representing verifiable carbon offsets or emissions reductions, usually at a rate of one tonne of carbon per token.

Tokenized Securities

Here, traditional securities like stocks or bonds are represented as blockchain tokens, simplifying ownership and trading.

Tokenized Stocks

These are stocks represented as digital tokens on a blockchain, allowing for decentralized trading and ownership.


Tokenomics refers to the study and design of a token’s economic model, including its distribution, utility, and governance.

TokenSets (Set Protocol)

TokenSets is a decentralized application built on Set Protocol, designed for managing crypto portfolios.

Toll Bridge

This is a blockchain-based service where users must pay a fee, often called a toll, to access certain functionalities.


Tor is a decentralized network that offers anonymity by routing user internet traffic through multiple encrypted relays.

Total Exchange Volume

This metric represents the cumulative value of assets traded on a given exchange or set of exchanges.

Total Supply

This refers to the existing amount of a particular cryptocurrency, minus any coins that have been confirmed as burned or destroyed.

Total Value Locked (TVL)

TVL is the measure of assets currently staked or invested in a particular blockchain protocol.

Trade Volume

This term refers to the quantity of a cryptocurrency traded within a 24-hour period.

Trading Bot

A trading bot is software designed to automate the process of trading cryptocurrencies based on specific algorithms or strategies.

Trading Tournament

These are special events hosted by crypto exchanges, where traders compete against each other to earn rewards, such as tokens or hardware wallets.

Trading Volume

This metric shows the total quantity of shares, coins, or tokens exchanged between buyers and sellers during a given day.


TradingView is an online platform providing charts and technical analysis tools for traders to analyze financial markets.

Transaction (TX)

This is the action of transferring cryptocurrencies within a blockchain network.

Transaction Fee

A fee paid for executing a transaction on a blockchain, compensating miners or validators.

Transaction ID (TXID)

Each blockchain transaction has a unique ID, known as the Transaction ID or TXID, for tracking and verification purposes.

Transaction Triggers

These are pre-set conditions that, once met, execute a group of transactions simultaneously on a blockchain.

Transactions Per Second (TPS)

TPS measures a network’s ability to process transactions, serving as a metric for its scalability and efficiency.


TRC10 is a token standard on the TRON blockchain that operates without the need for the TRON Virtual Machine (TVM).

TRC-20 Token

A more advanced form of TRC-10, the TRC-20 token standard is also built on the TRON network and does require the TRON Virtual Machine.

Treasury Bills (T-Bills)

These are short-term financial instruments issued by the U.S. government, representing debt obligations.

Treasury Bond (T-Bond)

A T-Bond is a long-term debt security also issued by the U.S. government and backed by its full financial support.


A type of malicious software often masquerading as legitimate software to gain unauthorized access to systems.


Truffle serves as both a development environment and a testing framework for blockchain applications, specifically those on EVM-compatible chains.


In the fiduciary sense, a trust is a legal arrangement in which assets are held by a trustee for the benefit of a third party, known as the beneficiary.


This term describes an environment that operates without the need for a central authority, often made possible through blockchain technology.


A service that mixes cryptocurrency transactions to make the funds less traceable and to protect user anonymity.

Turing Completeness

Turing completeness refers to the capability of a system or programming language to solve any problem that can be solved by a machine created by mathematician Alan Turing.


A system that in principle could be able to solve any computation problem.

Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)

Two-factor authentication (2FA) is method of access that requires two different forms of authentication.

Type Checking

A process in programming languages to verify whether or not each operation in the program is in accordance with the type declaration rules of the language.

TypeScript Programming Language

TypeScript programming language is a more advanced version of JavaScript that includes more functionality.


Typosquatting is a deceptive practice used by scammers to trick people into entering a counterfeit website and compromising their private information.



Unbanked refers to those that are either unable to access banking services, or choose not to.

Uncle Block (Ommer Block)

Uncle Block (Ommer Block) refers to the discarded block in the phenomenon when two blocks are simultaneously created, resulting in one block being omitted from the blockchain.


A state in which a transaction has not been appended to the blockchain.

UNI Token

A native governance token of Uniswap, the largest decentralized exchange at the time of writing.

Unit of Account

A unit of account is a standardized unit of measurement used in accounting to record and track financial transactions.

United States House Committee on Financial Services

The U.S. House Committee on Financial Services is a committee of the United States House of Representatives that oversees all components of the US’s financial and housing services.

Unpermissioned Ledger

A public ledger that is open to anyone, without being controlled by a single owner.

Unrealized Profit & Loss

Unrealized profit and loss occur when you have a position open in a security that has appreciated or depreciated in value.


Something that isn’t controlled by a centralized authority or a governing intuition.

Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO)

A transaction that is left unspent after being completed, similar to leftover change after making a purchase.

Unstoppable Domains

Unstoppable Domains is the name of a San-Francisco based company that provides blockchain-based domain names to users.

US Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC)

The US Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) is a financial intelligence and enforcement agency of the US Treasury Department.

Use Case

A use case is a description of the interactions between an actor (human or system) and a system that leads to an event.

User Interface

The user interface is the user’s interaction with a website or application using a digital device.

UTC Time

Coordinated Universal Time.

Utility Mining

Utility mining is a mechanism that allows for the distribution of tokens based on user activity and active participation. This allows crypto projects to distribute flexible yields attached to any specified on-chain interaction.

Utility Token

Tokens that are designed specifically to be able to help people use something.



A participant on a proof-of-stake (PoS) blockchain, involved in validating blocks for rewards.

Vanity Address

A cryptocurrency public address with custom letters and numbers, usually picked by its owner.


A cryptocurrency project that is never actually developed.

Venture Capital

A form of private equity provided to fund small, early-stage firms considered to have high growth potential.

Verification Code

A verification code is a security protection method that is used to avoid internet bots from abusing or even spamming various online services.

Vesting Period

The act of restricting the sale of a token for a particular period of time.

Virgin Bitcoin

A Bitcoin that has never been spent.

Virtual Automated Market Makers (vAMMs)

A virtual Automated Market Maker (vAMM) is a system that provides synthetic (or virtual) liquidity, allowing traders to buy and sell derivatives entirely on the blockchain.

Virtual Commodity Association (VCA)

The virtual commodity association is a non-profit organization of cryptocurrency exchanges and custodians with an aim to build a self-regulatory organization (SRO) for the U.S. virtual currency industry.

Virtual Private Network (VPN)

A virtual private network (VPN) is a technology that creates a safe and encrypted network from a public internet connection – giving you anonymity and privacy.

Virtual Reality (VR)

Virtual reality (VR) technology is used to simulate an immersive artificial world that can mimic or transcend reality. V


Computers are usually infected with a virus when a user unknowingly installs it via a downloaded file.

Vitalik Buterin

Vitalik Buterin is one of the creators of Ethereum, the second-largest cryptocurrency after Bitcoin.


A statistical measure of dispersion of returns, measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index.


How much cryptocurrency has been traded over a set period, such as the past 24 hours.



A digital vault where users can securely store, dispatch, and accept cryptocurrencies.

Wallstreetbets (WSB)

Also known as /r/wallstreetbets, this is an online community on Reddit where participants share insights, tips, and discussions about stock and option trading.

WannaCry Ransomware

This ransomware is notorious for its ability to swiftly infiltrate and compromise multiple computer networks, locking out users and demanding a ransom.

Wasabi Wallet

An open-source Bitcoin wallet with an emphasis on privacy. It’s compatible with multiple operating systems including Windows, Linux, and macOS.

Wash Trade

A deceitful market practice where the same investor simultaneously buys and sells the same cryptocurrency to create a misleading impression of market activity.

Watchdog Organization

Nonprofit entities that vigilantly monitor the activities of governments or other organizations to ensure accountability and fairness.

Watcher (OMG Foundation)

Within the OMG Foundation, a Watcher is a computer system responsible for overseeing the child chain and block producer to ensure that network transactions are accurately confirmed.


A customizable feature on websites enabling users to compile a list of cryptocurrencies they wish to monitor.

Weak Hands

Refers to investors who are easily spooked into selling their assets at the first sign of market downturn.

Web 1.0

The foundational version of the internet that was mainly static and had limited user interaction.

Web 2.0

The present iteration of the internet, characterized by dynamic content and user-generated data.

Web 3.0

The forthcoming evolution of the internet expected to bring about more intelligent, semantic, and personalized user experiences.

Web3 Foundation

An organization established to advance decentralized web technologies and applications.


A protocol that establishes two-way communication between a client and a server, going beyond the request-response model of HTTP.


The smallest unit of Ether, with one Ether being equal to 1e18 Wei.


An investor who holds a significantly large quantity of cryptocurrency, enough to have potential influence over market conditions.

When Lambo

A colloquial expression among crypto holders pondering when they will accrue enough wealth to buy a Lamborghini.

When Moon

A slang term inquiring about the timeframe for a dramatic increase in cryptocurrency prices.

White Hat Computer Hacker

Ethical hackers who use their expertise to identify and rectify security vulnerabilities before they can be exploited by malicious entities.

White Label

The process where a company adopts an existing product, adds their branding, and resells it as their own creation.

White Label Staking

A specialized form of staking where a third-party operator establishes and manages a validator node on behalf of a crypto holder.

White Swan Event

An event that can be easily forecasted based on existing data and predictive modeling.


A registry of people who have expressed interest in participating in an initial coin offering and are authorized to do so.


An authoritative document published by a cryptocurrency project outlining its technical specifications, roadmap, and growth strategies.

Winding Down

In the DeFi space, this refers to converting tokens back to their original state after they have been utilized in various protocols.

Winding Up

In DeFi, this is the act of wrapping tokens through different protocols to maximize yield generation.


x86 Virtual Machine (Qtum)

This allows developers in the Qtum ecosystem to code smart contracts using various programming languages.


An alternative ticker symbol used to represent Bitcoin, though it’s less commonly used compared to BTC.


Yield Curve

A graphical representation showing the relationship between the yield and maturity of fixed-income securities.

Yield Farming

A strategy in decentralized finance where users invest cryptocurrencies to earn interest or rewards.

Yield Sensitivity

A metric indicating how the price of a fixed-income asset will change in response to fluctuations in interest rates.


An acronym for Year to Date, used to describe a period that starts from the beginning of the current year and continues to the present day.


Zero Confirmation Transaction

Another term for a transaction that hasn’t yet been verified and added to the blockchain.

Zero Knowledge Proof

A cryptographic method enabling one to prove the authenticity of information without revealing the information itself.

Zero Knowledge Rollup

A Layer 2 blockchain scaling solution utilizing zero-knowledge cryptography to perform off-chain calculations while securing assets in a smart contract.


A specialized form of zero-knowledge proof that allows one party to verify the ownership of certain information without revealing it.


Incorporates Zero Knowledge Proofs (ZKPs) to offer a trustless medium for secure, private, and cost-effective data transfer